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Forced Migration Means that the migrant has been compelled to move, especially by political or environmental factors.
Migration (migratory movement) Is a permanent move to a new location.
Refugee Has been forced to migrate to another country to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights, etc. and can't return for fear of persecution because of race, religion, nationality, etc.
Asylum seeker Is someone who has migrated to another country in the hope of being recognized as a refugee.
Guest Workers (Time­‐ contract workers) Is a term once used for a worker who migrated to the developed countries of northern and western Europe, usually from southern and eastern Europe or from north Africa, in search of a higher-paying job.
Migration Transition Model (Zelinsky) Consists of changes in a society comparable to those in the demographic transition model.
Immigration (Immigrants) Is migration to a location.
Mobility Is a general term covering all types of movements from one place to another.
Counterurbanization Is the net migration from urban to rural areas.
Net migration Is the difference between the number of immigrants and emigrants.
Internal Migration (Inter-­ or Intra-­ Regional) Is a permanent move within the same country.
Internally displaced person (Dislocation) Has been forced to migrate for similar political reasons as a refugee but has not migrated across an international border.
Pull Factor Induces people to move into a new location.
Push Factor Induces people to move out of their present location.
Voluntary Migration Implies that the migrant has chosen to move, especially for economic improvement.
Brain drain Is a large scale emigration by talented people.
Chain migration (immigration waves) Is the migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there.
Illegal immigration Is when people enter a country without proper documents.
Undocumented immigrants Is the term preferred by groups that advocate for more rights for these individuals.
Circulation (Cyclic, Seasonal, Transmigrational) Short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis.
Emigration (emigrants) Is migration from a location.
Quotas (US Act of 1921) In reference to migration, laws that place maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year.
Net-In Migration Is when the number of immigrants exceeds the number of emigrants and the net migration is positive.
Net-Out Migration Is when the number of emigrants exceeds the number of immigrants and the net migration is negative.
Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration Can be divided into three groups, the distance that migrants typically move, the reasons migrants move, and the characteristics of migrants.
External Migration (International or Intercontinental) Is a permanent move from one country to another. There are two types, forced and voluntary.
Cyclic movement Occurs on a daily or weekly basis within the territory near a person's home.
Seasonal movement (Periodic) Occurs when people move with specific seasons or at specific times of the year.
Transhumance (transmigration) Is the movement of livestock based on the availability of food.
Demographic Equation Is used to calculate all of the growth in a nation.
Migration Patterns Are important for demographic predictions.
Distance decay (Friction of distance or critical distance) Means that the further a location is the less likely a person is to move there due to the friction of distance. This is still an issue for many migrants, but technology and transportation are lessening the issues of distance.
Step migration Leaving a certain location with an end destination, but stopping along the way to save money, locate new transportation, etc.
Intervening obstacle Such as mountains or discrimination (Can be environmental or cultural).
Intervening opportunity Such as a good job or acceptance, might cause a migrant to stay in the intermediate location.
Migration Selectivity Is the prediction about which type of people will migrate.
Gravity model of Spatial Interaction Examines how people and ideas move between, and within, areas of the world.
Colonization Migration, (one nation establishing ownership in different territory).
Sun Belt Offers preferable climates (replaced the name "Cotton Belt" as the area gained technology and industry).
Great Migration Is when African American patterns differed from the overall trend with large numbers moving to urban areas in the Northeast and Midwest during the mid-20th century.
Population Centroid Is the centroid is the point on which a rigid, weightless map would balance perfectly, if the population members are represented as points of equal mass.
Acculturation Is cultural modification of an individual, group, or people by adapting to or borrowing traits from another culture.
Life Course Changes Is defined as a sequence of socially defined events and roles that the individual enacts over time.
Activity Space (large scale) Is the range of an area in which an organism participates in its daily activities (e.g. a school or workplace).
Personal Space (small scale) Is the surrounding area over which a person makes a claim to territorial privacy.
Migrant labor Is casual and unskilled workers who move about systematically from one region to another offering their services on a temporary, usually seasonal, basis.
Global‐Scale migration Is migration that takes place across international boundaries and between world regions.
Migration Counterstreams Is migration that runs opposite to a migration stream.
Remittance Is money migrant send back to family and friends in their home countries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer countries.
Rural-Urban movement Is a permanent movement from an agrarian sparsely populated region to a densely populated metropolitan area.
Cluster migration Is a pattern of movement and settlement resulting from the collective action of distinctive social or ethnic group.
Rust Belt Is the northern industrial United States, including Ohio, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, in which heavy industry was once dominant. Northern industrial states whose economies were declining as factories closed and people moved away in the 1960s and 1970s
Migration Streams Are a constant flow of migrants from the same origin to the same destination.
Commuting Is traveling from one's residence to one's regular place of business and back to the residence.
Amnesty programs Give forgiveness for coming over illegally, granted in the context of immigration reform, normally had to prove continuous residence.
Space-time compression (prism) Is the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communications and transportation systems.
Cotton Belt Is the South's previous name due to its agricultural poverty
Immigration Laws Are laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into the state.
Infrastructure Is the underlying framework of services and amenities needed to facilitate productive activity.
Terrorism Is the calculated use of violence (or threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in nature.
Extremism Is religious fundamentalism carried out to the point of violence.
Place Desirability (Place Utility) Is the desirability and usefulness of a place to an individual or to a groups such as a family.
Eco-migration Is population movement caused by the degradation of land and essential natural resources.
Popular AP Human Geography sets




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