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about feudalism

3 groups of people in the middle ages those who work, those who fight, those who pray
what percent were the serfs of the total middle ages population? 90 percent
What existed before serfs? slaves
what three groups made up the slave population? slavic, african, and syrian peoples
why did slavery disappear in the middle ages? It was opposed by the church
Facts on serfs (6) paid random taxes to lord, hereditary condition, worked 3 or more days on lord's land, could be freed or sold by lord, could not free themselves, free if they could live in a town for a year and a day
What happened to give serfs upward mobility? serfs use 3rd person to free them, serfs use reclaimed or wasteland away from the lord, lords free serfs to make money
what does the manor include? could include villages and lords' residences, or one homestead
what was the lord's land called? demesne
how is manor land organized? all land divided into strips and scattered throughout (the open-field system)
what lands are on the manor? forests, peasant fields, demesne, rivers
where do resources come from? forests
what sort of agricultural methods were available to peasants? open-field system, crop rotation, fertilizers, plows and harrows, horse collar
how does crop rotation work? spring crops/winter cereals/fallow
What did early fertilizers consist of? animal poo or garbage
what were agricultural instruments like? plows and harrows (cultivators) are wooden, reinforced with iron after 1100 brings more iron production
explain the significance of the horse collar. A padded collar allowed horses to pull things instead of oxen. This was only useful in some cases, because horses had surer footing over stones, but oxen were still needed to pull through clay or wet soil.
What was the average crop yield? 5 to 1
What was family like for peasants? Lived with nuclear family, wife, husband, 3 kids, married in early 20s. Women help on farm and around house.
what were peasant living accomodations like? One room, made of mud/wood/straw, no windows, sparse furniture, shed, garden and outhouse
What do peasants eat? fruit and vegetables, non-wheat black bread, cheese or fish (maybe), lots and lots of beer, soup called potage, milk
Who runs the breweries? women
Travel for peasants Trick question; they stay with the land and drink a lot, strong regional ties
In the middle ages, people were more or less healthier? More
Childbirth for peasants mother is more important than child, one usually dies, child baptized after birth, caesarians performed after woman dies, women are midwives and gynecologists.
healthcare for peasants no real cure for most stuff, 1 in 200 is a leper, local monk or family cares for you.
Hospitals and infirmaries More like a nice place to die, a monastery, mostly in England, more in city, male doctors, in 12th century.
Religion for peasants part of everything, center of life, communion at xmas and easter only, relic trade goes on, patron saints for everything, little rituals, stained-glass windows do the teaching, mary is #1, devil is big, you are a ghost before afterlife, 7 sacraments,
true or false: the celts and germans were never christianized false, they mixed it with their tribal religions
saintly biography hagiography
what erased the ghost concept? purgatory
what is an indulgence? something signed by the pope to release one from purgatory. I screwed up and the pope will get me out. Have to visit shrine by pilgriming to get it.
What time period was the high middle ages? 11th, 12th, 13th century
Created by: corndog67