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Ch.5

Methods and Strategies of Research

QuestionAnswer
Methods of Research Experimental Ablation Recording and Stimulating Neural Activity Neurochemical Methods Genetic Methods
Experimental Ablation1 evaluating behavioral effects of brain damage
Experimental Ablation2 producing brain lesions
Experimental Ablation3 Stereotaxic Surgery
Experimental Ablation4 Histological Methods
Experimental Ablation5 Tracing neural connections
Experimental Ablation6 studying structure of living brains
Experimental Ablation7 may or may not involve removal of tissue
Stereotaxic surgery get tip of an electrode or cannula to a precise location in the depths of the brain
Stereotaxic Atlas materials of study of brain locations
Lesion Method of destroying the part of the brain and evaluating animals subsequent behavior
inflicted lesion1 passing a high frequency electrical current
inflicted lesion2 infusing an excitotoxic chemical
inflicted lesion3 Injecting local anesthetic (temporary)
sham lesions a placebo procedure
Stereotaxic apparatus device that holds head and a holder for the electrode or cannula and a calibrated mechanism that moves the electrode
Histological methods procedures used to fix, slice, stain, and examine brain tissue
Perfusion removing and replacing the blood
Fixation to prevent outolysis and decomposition of tissue (using Formalin)
Slicing Microtome, Cryostat
microtome contains a knife, a platform, and a mechanism that advances the knife or platform the correct amount after each slice so that another section can be cut
Cryostat like a microtome, but in a freezer
Myelin Stains highlight white matter; reveal neuron pathways
Golgi stains highlight individual neurons
Nissl stains highlight cell bodies(gray matter)
Experimental Ablation: Rationale brain function can be inferred from behaviors that an animal can no longer perform after the area has been damaged
Experimental Ablation: Fault brain function does not equal behavior and all of the regions of the brain are interconnected
Histological methods (Electron Microscopy)1 Light Microscopy
Histological methods (Electron Microscopy)2 Transmission Electron Microscopy
Histological methods (Electron Microscopy)3 Scanning Electron Microscopy
Histological methods (Electron Microscopy)4 Confocal Electron Microscopy
Light Microscopy Image viewed directly: 1.Light source 2.Condenser Lens 3.Specimen 4.Objective Lens 5.Eyepiece Lens
Transmission Electron Microscopy Image viewed on Fluorescent screen 1.Electron Source 2.Condenser Lens 3.Specimen 4.Objective Lens 5.Projection Lens
Scanning Electron Microscopy Image viewed on monitor 1.Electron Source 2.Condenser Lens 3.Scanning Coil (Beam Deflector) 4.Detector 5.3D Specimen
Confocal Electron Microscopy 1.Can see details inside thick sections of tissue or even in slabs of tissue 2.Microscope scans the tissue with light from a laser beam
Tracing Neural Connections 1.Anterograde Labeling Method 2.Retrograde Labeling Method 3.Immunocytochemical Method
Anterograde Labeling Method 1.Employ chemicals taken up by dendtrites or cell bodies, then transported through axons to terminal buttons 2.Helps identify neural pathways 3.
Retrograde Labeling Method (reversed)
Immunocytochemical Methods 1.Takes advantage of the reaction (producing antibodies in response to antigens) 2.Using radioactive antibodies or antibodies bound with a dye molecule to indicate the presence of particular proteins of peptides
Computerized Axial Tomography send a scanning beam of x-rays to produce a 2-D picture of a "slice" through the body
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 1.Passing an extremely strong magneic field through the patients head - causes the nuclei of spinning hydrogen atoms to align themselves to the magnetic field 2.Different tissues contain different amounts of water and emit different amounts of energy
Diffusion Tension Imaging 1.Uses a modified MRI scanner to reveal bundles of myelinated axons in the living brain 2.Traces the movement of water molecules to determine the location and orientation of axon bundles
Created by: Dalea
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