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Ch.3

Ch.3 Brain

TermDefinition
Neurogenesis Production of new Neurons
Apoptosis Neuron death by not finding a postsynaptic cell
Radial Glia Neural cells that provide guidance for neurons migrating outward during brain development; About 1 million neurons migrate along radial glia in a day
Progenitor cells Stem cells that give rise to CNS
Ipsilateral refers to structures on the same side of the body
Contralateral refers to structures on the opposite side of the body
Meninges protective layers encasing the nervous system
Ventricles Hollow interconnected chambers in the brain filled with cerebral spinal fluid
sulci small grooves
fissures large grooves
gyri bulges between sulci and fissures
gray matter cerebral cortex
white matter large concentration of myelin (causes the tissue to appear opaque or white), located beneath the cerebral cortex
frontal lobe includes everything in front of the central sulcus
parietal lobe (the wall)located behind the central sulcus, caudal to the frontal lobe
temporal lobe (the "temple") juts forward from the base of the brain vental to the frontal and parietal lobes
occipital lobe lies at the very back of the brain
Motor association cortex (premotor cortex), located rostral to primary motor cortex and controls the primary motor cortex
prefrontal cortex rostral to premotor cortex, and is involved in formulating plans and strategies
left hemisphere recognizes serial events
right hemisphere specialized for synthesis, and puts isolated elements together to perceive things as a whole
Limbic system Integrates emotional responses and regulates motivated behavior and learning
Hippocampus forming new long term memories and spatial memory
Amygdala coordinates emotional responses through connections with other brain areas
Basal ganglia Involved in the control of movement. Includes caudate nucleus, the putamen and the globus pallidus
Thalamus projects information to specific brain regions of the cerebral cortex and receive information from it
Hypothalamus involved in regulation of the autonomic nervous system, controls the pituitary gland
Pituitary gland (endocrine system) Hypothalamus secretes hormones that in turn cause the pituitary gland to secrete hormones
Anterior pituitary gland release anterior pituitary hormones
Posterior pituitary gland terminal buttons release posterior pituitary hormones
midbrain (mesencephalon) surrounds the crebral aqueduct and consists of two major parts:the tectum and the tegmentum
tectum "roof" located in the dorsal portion of the mesencephalon; principal structures are superior colliculi and the inferior colliculi which appear as four bumps on the dorsal surface of the brain stem
tectum contains parts of the visual and auditory systems
Tegmentum ventral part of midbrain includes: periaqueductal, reticular formation and substantia nigra
periaqueductal important for fighting, mating, and modulation of pain
reticular formation large interconnected network- influences: arousal, attention, sleep, muscle tone, etc.
substantia nigra critical for initiation and modulation of movement; degeneration causes Parkinson's disease
Hindbrain surrounds the fourth ventricle, consists of two major divisions the metencephalon and the myelencephalon
metencephanlon consists of the cerebellum and the pons
cerebellum (little brain) with it's two hemispheres, resembles a miniature version of the cerebrum. Each hemisphere is attatched to the dorsal surface of the pons by bundles of axons: superior, middle, and inferior cerebellar peduncles
cerebellar cortex covers cerebellum and has a set of deep cerebellar nuclei
cerebellar peduncles "little feet"
cerebellum (actions) receives visual, auditory, vestibular (balance), and somatosensory information; coordinates sensory information with motor information from the cerebral cortex
Pons (bridge) contains portion of reticular formation; important for sleep and arousal. Also contains a large nucleus that relays information from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum
medulla oblongata (oblong marrow) controls vital functions such as regulation of heart rate, breathing, digestion, and muscle tone
Created by: Dalea