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Chapter Five

Polis City-state, the basic political unit in Greece.
Acropolis A walled, high area around which a polis was typically built.
Agora Marketplace, usually found below a polis's acropolis.
Helots State slaves of Sparta who farmed so that the Spartans could train for war.
Hoplites Spartan foot soldiers.
Hubris Great pride that often led heroes to tragic ends.
Democracy Government run by the people.
Solon Athenian lawmaker who revised laws and created an elected council to help govern, the first step toward democracy.
Tyrant A leader who seizes power by force and claims to rule for the good of the people.
Cleisthenes Athenian reformer, often called "the father of democracy".
Direct Democracy System of government in which all people vote directly on an issue.
Archon Elected official who acted as the head of both the assembly and the council of 500.
Phalanx A tight rectangle formation in which soldiers held long spears out ahead of their shields.
Pericle Military and political leader of Athens who is credited with most of the rebuilding of city after the Persian Wars.
Socrates First of the great Athenian philosophers, believed that working through a series of questions led people to discover the basic nature of life.
Plato Great philosopher and student of Socrates, wrote about government and other topics, founded the Academy.
Aristotle Athenian philosopher who studied at the Academy, used philosophy to pursue every kind of knowledge.
Reason Clear and ordered thinking.
Logic The process of making inferences.
Homer Legendary poet from the 800s BC who composed the Iliad and the Odyssey.
Lyric Poetry Poetry which was sung with the accompaniment of an instrument called a lyre.
Herodotus First major historian; lived during the wars with Persia and wrote about them.
Thucydidles Historian who wrote about the Peloponnesian War.
Alexander the Great Macedonian leader who ruled Greece and conquered Persia.
Hellenistic Greek-like; describes a culture that was no longer purely Greek, but included elements from Persia, Egypt, Central Asia, and other regions.
Euclid Egyptian who formulated many of the geometry ideas we still learn today.
Eratosthenes Egyptian scientist who calculated the size of the world, arriving at a figure remarkably close to the actual circumference of the globe.
Archimedes One of the ancient world's greatest investors, used mathematics and physics to create devices that would make life easier.
Created by: annaperrell