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Anatomy exam II Heart

The _____ is the central portion of the thoracic cavity separating the two pleural cavities. mediastinum
What does the mediastinum border anteriorly? sternum
What does the mediastinum border posteriorly? T1-T12 vertebral bodies
What does the mediastinum border laterally? mediastinal parts of the parietal pleura
What does the mediastinum border superiorly? superior thoracic aperture
What does the mediastinum border inferiorly? diaphragm
The mediastinum is divided into the _____ and ______ mediastinum by a transverse thoracic plane running from the _____ to the intervertebral disc between vertebrae T4-T5 superior; inferior; sternal angle
The _____ mediastinum can further be subdivided into the anterior, middle, and posterior mediastinum. inferior
The borders of the middle mediastinum are defined by the _____, a cone-shaped sac surrounding the heart and the origins of the great vessels pericardium
The _____ is the tough external fibrous layer of the pericardial sac fibrous pericardium
The inner _____ pericardium has two layers: the _____ layer, which lines the inner surface of the fibrous pericardium, and the _____ layer (epicardium), which adheres to the heart and forms its outer covering serous; parietal; visceral
The potential space between the parietal and visceral layers of serous pericardium is the ______. pericardial cavity
The arterial supply to the pericardium is mainly from the _____ arteries, although branches from the _____ arteries and the _____ aorta may also contribute pericardiacophrenic; musculophrenic; thoracic
Pericardial innervation comes from the _____ nerves, _____ nerves, and _____ trunks phrenic; vagus; sympathetic
Pain sensation is carried by the _____ phrenic nerves (C3-5)
The serous pericardium forms reflections around: 1) _____ and _____ and 2) the ______ and the ____ and _______ the pulmonary trunk and aorta; pulmonary veins and superior and inferior vena cava
The reflection onto the pulmonary veins forms the _____ oblique pericardial sinus
The two reflections form a passage behind the aorta and pulmonary trunk called the _____ transverse pericardial sinus
The _____ develops as a result of the _____ that forms in the primordial heart tube transverse pericardial sinus; cardiac loop
The _____ is an important landmark for cardiac surgeons transverse pericardial sinus
The _____ is directed posteriorly and consists of the left atrium, a portion of the right atrium, and the proximal parts of the great veins base of the heart
The _____ is directed anteriorly and to the left and formed by the inferolateral part of the left ventricle. (tip of bottom of left corner) apex of the heart
The heart has _____, diaphragmatic, right and left _____ surfaces anterior; pulmonary
The _____ is the sharp edge between the anterior and diaphragmatic surfaces inferior margin
The _____ separates the anterior and left pulmonary surfaces obtuse margin
The heart is divided into four chambers: right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, and left ventricle
When the atria contract, blood is forced into the ventricles. The _____ are open at this point A-V valves
When the ventricles contract the _____ are forced shut, and blood is forced to exit via the ____ and _____ A-V valves; aorta and pulmonary trunk
The _____ act to prevent valve prolapse chordae tendineae
Closure of the _____ produces the first of the two heart sounds (lubb). A-V valves
The ___ and ___ valves are open during ventricular contraction so that blood can escape pulmonary and aortic
After _____ contraction, the recoil of blood fills the aortic and pulmonary sinuses and forces the valves _____, thereby preventing backflow of blood into the ventricles ventricular; closed
Closure of the _____ produces the second heart sound (dupp) aortic and pulmonary valves
What are the 4 valves you listen for during auscultation? aortic; tricuspid; pulmonary; mitral
The _____ is a collection of dense, fibrous connective tissue that encircles the four cardiac valves cardiac skeleton
The four rings of the cardiac skeleton are collectively known as the _____ annulus fibrosus
The _____ connects the aortic ring and the left A-V ring left fibrous trigone
The _____ connects the aortic ring and the right A-V ring right fibrous trigone
The _____ helps to maintain the structural integrity of the valves and provides attachment points for the cusps cardiac skeleton
The cardiac skeleton also serves as a dense connective tissue partition that electrically isolates the _____ from the _____ atria; ventricles
The heart has its own _____ and does not need input from the nervous system to beat rhythmically conducting system
The conducting system consists of specialized _____, NOT neural tissue myocardial cells
Input from the nervous system is necessary to change ____ or ____ of contraction. These signals come through the _____ rate or force; cardiac plexuses
The _____ initiates an impulse that is rapidly conducted to cardiac muscle fibers in the atria, causing them to contract SA node
The impulse is spread by _____, which rapidly transmits the impulse to the _____ myogenic conduction; AV node
The signal is distributed from the AV node through the _____ and the right and left bundle branches to the _____ AV bundle; subendocardial branches
The subendocardial branchesare also known as _____ purkinjie fibers
The ______ arises from the right aortic sinus of the ascending aorta and descends in the _____ between the right atrium and ventricle right coronary artery; coronary sulcus
The right coronary artery gives off a ____, which supplies the _____ border of the heart right marginal branch; right
In most individuals (~80%), the right coronary artery gives off a _____, which runs in the _____ posterior interventricular branch; posterior interventricular sulcus
The _____ arises from the left aortic sinus of the ascending aorta and passes between the pulmonary trunk and left auricle left coronary artery
The left coronary artery splits into the _____ branch anterior interventricular
The anterior interventricular branch descends obliquely in the ______ and the ______ anterior interventricular sulcus and the circumflex branch
What gives rise to the left marginal branch? the circumflex branch
Individuals in which the posterior interventricular branch arises from the right coronary artery are said to have a _____ dominant coronary artery right
Individuals in which the posterior interventricular branch arises from an enlarged circumflex branch of the left coronary artery are said to have a ____ dominant coronary artery left
The _____ is a wide venous channel that runs from left to right in the posterior part of the coronary sulcus coronary sinus
The coronary sinus receives the _____ at its left end and the middle and small cardiac veins at its right end great cardiac vein
The _____ drains into either the great cardiac vein or directly into the coronary sinus posterior cardiac vein
The ____ veins of _____ drain directly into the right atrium anterior; right ventricle
If a coronary artery is blocked, it can lead to _____ or a _____ angina pectoris; MI
What is angina pectoris? intermittent chest pain caused by reversible cardiac ischemia
What is a MI? heart attack; a localized area of myocardial necrosis induced by local ischemia
_____ is the most common cause of death in the U.S. (1.2 million myocardial infarctions per year; 0.5 million deaths) coronary heart disease
Coronary artery occlusion is usually due to _____ atherosclerosis
Treatments for coronary artery blockage include ______ and _______ coronary artery bypass surgery and angioplasty
When cardiac cells die during a myocardial infarction, ______ are stimulated visceral afferent pain fibers
The brain is unable to distinguish clearly between the _____ and _____ sensory distribution and therefore the pain is interpreted as arising from the _____ regions rather than the ______ organ visceral and somatic; somatic; visceral
Created by: luckynikki