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Chapter Four

Subcontinent A large landmass that is part of a continent but is considered an independent entity either geographically or politically.
Monsoons Seasonal winds in India.
Citadel A fortress.
Vedas Sacred writings of the Indo-Aryans.
Rajas Leaders of ancient cities in India.
Varnas The four social classes in Vedic society.
Castes Social classes in the ancient Indian class system.
Hinduism The largest religion in India; Hindus believe that everything in the world is a power of Brahman, the single great universal being; they also believe in reincarnation and strive to break free from the cycle of rebirth.
Reincarnation The belief that after one dies, the soul is reborn into a different form.
Karma In Hinduism, the totality of a person's good and bad deeds and the way in which they affect that individual's fate in the afterlife.
Moksha In Hinduism, the escape from the cycle of rebirth.
Dharma In Hinduism, the religious and moral duties of an individual.
Yoga A series of physical and mental exercises that teaches people how to focus their bodies and minds.
Jainism A religion of India, founded about the same time as Buddhism (500 BC) and in reaction to some Hindu practices; believers renounce worldly things, embrace self-discipline, and practice non-violence.
Ahimsa In Jainism, nonviolence and respect for all living things.
Buddhism The religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama, which teaches the Four Noble Truths and following the Eightfold Path.
Buddha Founder of Buddhism; translated as Enlightened One.
Four Noble Truths Beliefs described by Buddha that explain the connections between life, desire, and suffering.
Eightfold Path The way to find the Middle Way: right view, attitude, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and concentration.
Nirvana A state of peaceful existence free from suffering.
Middle Way A life lived in moderation, avoiding extremes of comfort and discomfort in the search for enlightenment.
Loses A fine dusty soil carried into China by desert winds.
Court Gathering of wealthy nobles.
Oracle Bones Inscribed bits of animal bones or turtle shell that were used to seek advice from dead ancestors.
Mandate of Heaven Principal stating that the gods would support a just ruler, but they would now allow anyone corrupt to hold power.
Dynastic Cycle The rise and fall of dynasties.
Confucianism Philosophy that stresses treating others humanely, practicing traditional rituals, and honoring one's ancestors.
Daoism Philosophy that teaches that harmony is found by finding one's place in nature.
Created by: annaperrell