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Chp. 4

subcontinent a large landmass that is part of a continent
monsoons seasonal winds that bring heavy rains and warm air or cool, dry air
citadel fortress
Vedas sacred writings about Aryan history and society
rajas regional leaders in Vedic society who protected a group of villages
varnas social classes that divided Vedic society into four groups
castes divisions of varnas that determined what jobs one could hold and whom a person could marry
Hinduism one of the worlds oldest religion, practiced by most people in India today
reincarnation Hindu belief that the atman(soul) will be released from the body after death and later reborn in another; also called samsara
karma the sum effect of a person's deeds and actions during life
moksha escape from the cycle of rebirth, considered by Hindus to be ultimate goal of human existence
dharma set of spiritual duties and obligations for Hindus
yoga a series of physical and mental exercises that aid meditation
Jainism religion founded by Hindus who broke away because they believed moksha could be achieved through giving up worldly goods and controlling one's action
ahimsa nonviolence; idea that is central to Jain teaching
Buddhism religion whose followers seek enlightenment and an end to human suffering
Buddha founder of Buddhism; translated as Enlighten One
Four noble Truths beliefs described by Buddha that explain the connections between life, desire, and suffering
Eightfold Path the way to find the Middle way: right view, attitude, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and concentration
nirvana a state of peaceful existence free from suffering
middle way a life lived in moderation, avoiding extremes of comfort and discomfort in the search for enlightenment
loess a fine dusty soil carried into China by desert winds
court gathering of wealthy nobles
oracle bones inscribed bits of animal bones or turtle shell that were used to seek advice from dead ancestors
Mandate of Heaven principle stating that the gods would support a just ruler, but they would not allow anyone corrupt to hold power
dynastic cycle the rise and fall of dynasties
Daoism philosophy that teaches that harmony is found by finding one's place in nature
Confucianism philosophy that stresses treating others humanely , practicing traditional rituals and honoring ones ancestors
Created by: emelygaleano