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Chapter 2 First Civ

AP World History

TermDefinition
Mesopotamia the land between rivers in S.W.Asia
Nile River stable flooding provided reliable food source, wealth and beliefs in an afterlife that produced monumental building
Indus River Valley civilization with indoor plumbing, grid pattern, and Hindu beliefs
desertification the degrading of grasslands and soils from overgrazing and over-farming
deforestation the clearing of large swaths of timber through slash n burn farming or extensive logging to provide building materials
loess nutrient rich deposits in the soil from river flooding
Mesoamerica site of advanced Olmec civilization
ziggurats Sumerian temples that served as centers of religious rituals and as storehouses for grain
ten commandments the moral law Moses brought to the Hebrews
Jewish Diaspora the expulsion of Hebrews from Palestine by Babylonians, then later Romans to Europe, Asia, & Africa
mummification the embalming of Egyptian nobility & royalty to prepare for the afterlife
Vedas/Vedic Age collection of Aryan religious hymns, poems, and songs that describe the conflict with the native Dravidian peoples
dharma the Hindu term for the responsibility of believers to fulfill one's natural born duty in life, regardless of morality
karma the Hindu term for the accumulation of good or bad fortune based on faithfully following one's dharma
moksha the point of reaching union with the universal soul, or Brahma
ancestor veneration the belief that one should
scribes scholars who created writing systems like Cuneiform, and kept records of economic activity and history/myths of society
epic of Gilgamesh oldest written story that tells of the values of leaders in Sumerian society
alphabetic script Phoenician system of writing in which symbols represent sounds of speech
papyrus plant whos fibers were mashed & used to create paper in Egyptian civilization
Indo-European nomadic group from Central Asia who settled and dominated the Indus Valley, establishing a Caste System over darker-skinned natives
Sanskrit Indo-European language of the Aryan people who migrated into India
Upanishads the collection of religious thoughts that became the foundation of Hinduism
pictographs/glyphs written system in which graphic symbols represent an idea, concept, or object, not a sound
feudalism a decentralized system of regional rulers owing loyalty to an emperor in exchange of military defense networks
Kush African kingdom that conquered Egypt and adopted its culture
Axum trading empire in the Red Sea who converted to Christianity
Chavin Civilization Andean Civilization that created an empire based on trade and tribute system
Olmec Mesoamerican civilization that constructed large head monuments and worshipped jaguars & feathered serpents
aboriginal natives of Australia how remained hunter-gatherers
Hammurabi Babylonian king who established a law code to unify his empire
Mandate of Heaven the belief that rule was bestowed upon by the gods as long as the rulers were just and moral
Created by: wm0397