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Chp. 2

TermDefinition
Fertile Crescent a region of rich farmland that curves from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf centered on the area between the Tigris and Euphrates
Mesopotamia the area that lies between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Southwest Asia (land between the rivers)
ziggurat a Sumerian temple made of sun-dried brick that was dedicated to the chief god or goddess of a particular city-state
city-state a political unit that includes a town or a city and the surrounding land controlled by it
polytheism the belief in many gods
dynasty a family of rulers whose right to rule is hereditary
cuneiform Sumerian writing
Sargon (died c. 2300 BC) King of Akkad in Mesopotamia;he is considered the founder of Mesopotamia and conquered many cities along the along the middle Euphrates to northern Syria.
Hammurabi (ruled c. 1762-1750 BC) King of Babylonia; he was a brilliant military leader who brought all of Mesopotamia into the Babylonian Empire. He is known for his uniform code of 262 laws, the earliest known set of written laws.
Indo-Europeans a group of semi-nomadic people who migrated from southern Russia to the Indian subcontinent
Steppes arid grasslands
Nebuchadnezzar II Chaldean king of Babylon from 605-562 BC; he rebuilt Babylon into a beautiful city noted for its famed Hanging Gardens.
Judaism a monotheistic religion originating from the Israelite's, tracing its origins to Abraham, and having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Hebrew scriptures and the Talmud
Torah thee first five books of the Hebrew bible; the most sacred texts of the Jewish faith
Abraham according to the Bible, the originator of the Jewish line of descent;according to the Qu'ran the ancestor of the Arabs; he held a deep devotion to and a great trust in the will of God.
covenant a binding agreement
patriarch a ancestral "father" of Judaism
Moses Hebrew prophet and lawgiver;according to the Bible he led the Hebrew people out of Egypt and back to Canaan in the Exodus. According to the Bible, it was during this journey that he received the Ten Commandments from God.
Exodus the escape of the Hebrews from Egypt
Diaspora the dispersal of the Jews from their homeland in Palestine during the 2,600 years that followed the destruction of the Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem in 586 BC but the Chaldeans
monotheism the belief in one god
Cyrus the Great King of Persia and founder of the Persian Empire;he defeated the Median army and united the Persians and Medians under his rule
Darius I King of Persia from 522 to 486 BC; he reorganized and strengthened the Persian Empire by reforming the army and the government.
satrap governors of ancient Persia
Xerxes King of Persia; his armies invaded Greece but were eventually defeated by the Greeks
Zoroaster religious teacher and prophet of Persia; he founded a religion known as Zoroastrianism based on the idea that people have free will and can act as they choose
dualism the belief that the world is controlled by two opposing forces, good and evil
Created by: emelygaleano