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SD CH Flashcards

terms for Church History

1. Incarnation the doctrine that states that the second person of the trinity became man to save us
2. Acts of the Apostles book of the NewTestament that shows the early Church in action
3. Pentecost birthday of the Church; Holy Spirit came on this day
4. ekklesia Greek for assembly or church
5. Day of Pardon Pope John Paul II publicly asked for forgiveness for all the sins committed by Catholics over the past 2000 years – including treatment of Jews, heretics, women, and native peoples
6. CSHIPS a good, thorough definition of church includes these 6 ideas:Community, Servant, Herald, Institution, Pilgrim, Sacrament
7. ecumenical council refers to all the bishops gathering together/ there have been 21
8. papacy refers to the office of the pope
9. synod refers to bishops in one area gathering together
10. canon law church law
11. hierarchy leadership in the church
12. collegiality bishops working together with the pope
13. laity members of the church who do not belong to religious orders or ordained ministry
14. ecumenism means the work Or effort to reunite Christians (restore unity); John XXIII’s last words (“That they may all be one.”) related to ecumenism
15. schism a split in the Church; there was a major one in 1054 and in 1517
16. Christianity 3 main groups Catholics, Orthodox, Protestants
17. aggiornamento to update, modernize (Italian word used by John XXIII during Vatican II)
18. canonization process of recognizing someone as being in heaven/being a saint
19. martyr means witness (literally): a witness to the truths of the faith
20. deacons men who assist the priest; this order is older than presbyter (priest); Stephen was one of the first 7
21. gentile a non-Jew; Paul’s preaching helped bring these people to Christianity
22. Council of Jerusalem 1st century council that said that gentile Christians did not have to follow Jewish practices/laws
23. catholic means universal
24. apology a person’s defense/explanation of the faith
25. apologist a person who defends/explains her/his beliefs
26. Edict of Milan Constantine’s declaration legalizing all religions in 313 A.D.
27. chi rho a symbol made from first 2 letters for the Greek spelling of Christ
28. orthodox means correct, true or right teaching; name that the churches who split in 1054 took
29. heresy false teaching;conflicts with official teaching
30. creed a statement of beliefs
31. Arianism heresy denying that Jesus is truly God; Nicene Creed written in response (300’s)
32. Council of Nicaea first ecumenical council, called by Constantine in 325 to fight Arianism
33. Nicene Creed statement of beliefs written at Nicaea (325)and finished at Constantinople (381)
34. Council of Constantinople 2nd ecumenical council that completed the Nicene Creed adding the section on the Holy Spirit in 381
35. marks of the Church One, holy, catholic, apostolic (mentioned in the Nicene-Constantinople Creed)
36. Hagia Sophia built as a church in Constantinople, now a museum;means Holy Wisdom
37. Fathers of the Church Christian leaders (men) in the first 6 centuries who formulated Christian doctrine and practices
38. Doctors of the Church persons whose religious writings have greatly influenced others (lived any time; includes women)
39. monasticism this has two styles: communal and hermit, to get people close to God
40. ora et labora Benedict’s motto for monks; means pray and work
41. Papal states section of central Italy given by Pepin to the pope to rule who ruled it until 1870
42. Christendom name used during the Middle Ages to show the dominance of Christianity in Western Europe
43. College of Cardinals main job is to elect the pope
44. conclave meeting of cardinals to elect the pope
45. lay investiture practice of lay rulers appointing church leaders
46. simony buying a church office with money
47. excommunication means to be removed from the Church community; e.g., for teaching heresy
48. interdict sacraments can not be celebrated in a certain area or by certain people; used to control people
49. concordat an agreement between the pope and a country’s leader
50. Eastern Schism or East/West Schism official separation in 1054 of the Eastern Christian church from the Western church
51. Eastern Orthodox Churches Christian churches with origins in the Eastern Roman Empire who do not accept the pope
52. filioque Latin word meaning “and the Son” added to the Nicene Creed, but not by a council
53. rite the way worship happens/ the way the mass and sacraments are celebrated; the Catholic church has one rite called western or Roman or Latin rite and has 20+ Eastern rites
54. icon literally means image; painting used mostly in Eastern Christianity; uses a set style
55. Eastern Rite Catholic Churches Christian churches who accept the pope’s authority; these churches began in the Eastern Roman Empire in the first centuries and do not use the Latin rite
56. stigmata a person who displays wounds similar to the wounds of Christ is said to have this
57. cathedral from the Latin “cathedra” meaning chair; a church that houses the bishop’s chair
58. Romanesque style of architecture using rounded arches, thick walls, and few windows
59. Gothic style of architecture allowing for thin high walls, pointed arches, stain glass windows,flying buttresses
60. mendicant literally means “begging” b/c religious members depend on the charity of the people; refers to religious orders who lived among the people, not in monasteries
61. O.P. abbreviation for Order of Preachers, the order founded by St. Dominic
62. Summa Theologica St. Thomas Aquinas wrote this examination of Christian theology based on reason and faith
63. O.F.M. abbreviation for Order of Friars Minor (the religious order also known as the Franciscans); friars
64. crusade a fight to regain control of the Holy Land or to defend the faith against heretics
65. tribunal a church court dealing with such matters as annulments
66. inquisition a church court used to try people accused of being heretics; known for abuses such as putting innocent people to death
67. Black Death popular name for the bubonic plague which killed many mendicants in last half of 1300’s.
68. Great Western Schism period from 1378-1417 during which 2 then 3 men claimed to be pope
69. conciliarism belief that councils have greater authority than the pope
70. nationalism means love of country (sometimes even over love of church)
71. Reformation 16th cn. events that resulted in the division of Western Christianity into Catholic & Protestant
72. indulgences removal of part or all of punishment due to sins already forgiven; Martin Luther had a problem with the Catholic use of indulgences
73. 2 sources of Catholic beliefs what Catholics believe is based on scripture and on tradition
74. tradition faith ideas not in the bible handed down since the time of the apostles
75. sola scriptura Protestant belief that the bible is the sole source of religious truth
76. 95 Theses (thesis means statement) 95 statements Martin Luther may have tacked on the cathedral door in Wittenberg, Germany
77. Council of Trent 19th ecumenical council in second half of the 1500’s; clarified Catholic doctrine in response to the Protestant Reformation
78. S.J. abbreviation for Society of Jesus (Jesuits); founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola in the 1500’s
79. Blackrobes name given by northern Native Americans to the Jesuits
80. Jansensim heresy that said only very holy people could receive communion; affected modern world Catholics reception of communion
81. infallibility the pope’s being free from error in religious matters: when speaking about faith and morals; was defined at Vatican I (1869) and is considered to be a gift to the Church (pope especially) from Christ
82. encyclical this is a letter from the pope to all Catholics (sometimes all Christians)
83. Rerum Novarum an encyclical by Pope Leo XIII in 1891 that spoke out on the problems of Industrialization, esp. workers’ rights
Created by: dbrune
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