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HUMN201 (Unit 1)

4 main causes of the Enlightenment 1. Disgust with religious wars 2. New scientific discoveries 3. Philosophical developments 4. Religious changes
3 central tenets of the Age of Reason 1. Individual reason 2. Belief in progress 3. Tolerance as virtue
Define Classical music and list its prominent composers Classical music is simplified, minimalistic, and elegant. It's composers include: Haydyn, Mozart, Beethoven.
Define Baroque music and list its prominent composers Baroque has a strong beat, includes repetition, and is fancy af. It's composers include: Bach, Vivaldi, Handel.
Wrote "Piano Concerto in C Major" and half of "Requiem Mass in D Minor" Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Writer of "Symphony No. 4" ("Surprise!") and was known as "Papa _____" Franz Joseph Haydn
People who express enlightenment ideas Philosophes
The center of the enlightenment Paris, France
"lingua franca" means The language spoken by the majority (French at the time)
Voltaire Enlightenment figure who yelled, "Crush the infamous thing!" to symbolize bigotry, intolerance, and superstition
Montesque French political analyst best known for his view of the separation of powers
Rosseau Most known for his beliefs about natural education
7 values viewed highly during the Enlightenment 1. Education 2. Reason 3. Freedom 4. Tolerance 5. Progress 6. Deism 7. Science
3 values viewed negatively during the Enlightenment 1. Conformity 2. Superstition 3. Institutional religion (the church)
Wrote Nathan the Wise Gotthold Lessing
5 reforms people focused on during the Enlightenment 1. Religion 2. Educational 3. Scientific 4. Political 5. Economical
Physiocrat An economist who wished to reform economics during the Enlightenment
Adam Smith Physiocrat who wished to increase the national wealth by reduction of barriers that hindered its growth. Wrote, "Wealth of Nations". Wanted to limit government to defense, internal security, and provide reasonable laws
Mercantilism Government-regulated economy, against Physiocratic beliefs
Wrote "An Essay on Man: Moral Essays and Satire" Alexander Pope
The thesis of Alexander Pope's "Essay on Man" To vindicate the ways of God to man
In his "Essay on Man", what does Alexander Pope say about pride? Although humankind only sees half of the story, he is prideful and believes everything is created for his benefit and any providence that does not please him is wrong
In his "Essay on Man", what does Alexander Pope say about hope, especially in regards to the "educated" versus "uneducated"? Although we do not know the future, God provides us with hope. This hope is in everyone, but is dulled by the "educated" because they cannot blindly believe in hope, whereas the "uneducated" (Indians) were never taught to stray by science
The elements of life, according to Alexander Pope in his "Essay on Man" Passions
Wrote the Encyclopedia Denis Diderot
Wrote "A modest Proposal" Jonathan Swift
Wrote, "A Description of a City Shower" Jonathan Swift
Jonathan Swift's "Modest Proposal" Swift's satirical proposal is to sell one-year-old breastfed infants for profit to decrease the number of the population and provide economic help to women with unwanted pregnancies
7 benefits of the "Modest Proposal" as listed by Jonathan Swift 1. Women would be able to generate an income 2. Tourists attracted by fine cuisine 3. Population decrease 4. Men would no longer beat pregnant wives 5. New wines and cuisine 6. Boots and hats made of baby leather 7. Less papists
The main idea in Swift's "Description of a City Shower" A satire based on the belief that people would expect a beautiful image of a city shower but instead get a terrible image of a crappy, rainy day
Satire A work that indirectly attacks human foolishness with sarcasm and irony
2 real purposes of Swift's satirical "Modest Proposal" 1. To target Protestant closed-mindedness of Catholics 2. To target upper class abusing lower class individuals
Literary device Swift uses to say his true feelings at the end of his "Modest Proposal" Paralipsis, where he says, "let no man talk to me of other expedients: Of taxing our absentees at five shillings a pound: Of using neither cloths, nor houshold furniture, except what is of our own growth and manufacture..."
5 real reformations that Swift is proposing in the "Modest Proposal" 1. Taxation of absentee landlords 2. Using only Irish-made clothes/furniture 3. Rejecting foreign luxury 4. Curing expense of vanity for women 5. Prudent spending
Wrote "A description of the Morning" Jonathan Swift
Jonathan Swift's "A Description of the Morning" is this type of poem Irony. We get what we don't expect.
Jonathan Swift's "A Description of a City Shower" is this type of poem Ironic, satirical.
Enlightened Despotism failed in this country France
Why did Enlightened Despotism fail in France? Louis XV taxed the lower class in order to pay war debts from the 7 Years' War but gave tax breaks to the higher class individuals and churches
Louis XVI French leader who attempted to reform France but was denied by the Parliament of Paris
Where did Joseph II rule? What 5 things did he accomplish? Austria. 1. Abolished serfdom 2. Ordered equal punishment regardless of social class 3. Created equal taxation regardless of social class 4. Gave civil rights to Jews 5. Ordered control of Catholic church
Which Austrian monarch said: "The state should operate on the greatest good for the greatest number of people." Why is it important? Joseph II. This quote demonstrates true Enlightenment ideas
Where did Frederick the Great rule and what did he accomplish? Prussia. 1. Decreed to provide elementary-level education to citizens of all social classes (which was not accomplished) 2. Created religious freedom 3. Cleaned up Prussia to encouraged tourism
Catherine the Great: Russia. She created religious toleration, restrictions on torture, and hired a legislative commission to review the laws. Left office as a result of the Pugachev Revolt.
Pugachev Revolt: Led by Pugachev, Russian serfs led a revolt against nobility.
What happened to Poland in the 18th century? It was invaded three times by Russia, Prussia, and Austria and divided unto itty bitty pieces.
How did the American Revolution affect European political attitudes? it provided a concrete example of enlightenment ideas of freedom of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness and inspired other countries to pursue independence.
Which country's revolution was immediately influenced by the American Revolution? France
Enlightened Depotism: An all-powerful ruler who rules for the benefit of their subjects often by reform. Power is viewed as secular and not God-given.
When did Prussia collapse? Who defeated it? 1806. Napoleon
Who wrote "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding"? John Locke
What did John Locke write in "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding"? 1. Idea is the object of thinking, 2. All ideas come from sensation or reflection
Who wrote, "Men in love with their opinions may not only suppose what is in question, but allege wrong matter of fact"? John Locke in "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding"
In "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding," what does John Locke say about the soul? While we are awake, our souls are always thinking and creating ideas, but our souls don't think while we're asleep or unconscious. If our souls do think while we're asleep, we don't remember when we wake up.
Who wrote "An inquiry Concerning Human Understanding"? David Hume
What does Hume say in his "Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding"? "The most lively thought is still inferior to the dullest sensation," i.e. when we think of a sensation such as heat versus when we feel the sensation of heat, the feeling is stronger than the perception
What are "thoughts/ideas" according to Hume in his "Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding"? Thoughts are weak sensations caused by thinking of a sensation rather than feeling it
What are "impressions" according to Hume in his "Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding"? The things we feel, see, hate, love, or desire as distinguished by our ideas
According to Hume in his "Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding," are our thoughts limited or limitless? They're limited because we can only think of things we've previously learned (we can only think of a gold mountain because we've learned what "gold" and "mountain" are and can put them together
Epistemology: The study of knowledge, seen in Locke and Humes' essays
Empiricist: One who believes people are born as blank slates with no innate knowlege, such as Hume and Locke
Who said that all ideas are just collections of smaller ideas? Hume
Three connections according to Hume: 1. Cause and Effect 2. Resemblance 3. Contiguity
Who wrote "Candide"? What type of literature is it? Voltaire, satire
What is the main theme of "Candide"? It's a satire on the idea that all things happen for a reason
The Inconsistent Triad: 1. God is all good 2. God is all powerful 3. There is evil in the world
What does Voltaire think of Philosophical Optimism? It's bs
Panglass: Candide's tutor, a philosopher who believes in philosophical optimism and greatly influences Candide's worldview. His maxim: "We live in the best of all possible worlds"
Martin: Candide's other philosopher who's a cynic
What is evil, according to Pangloss in "Candide"? Evil is just "shadows in a beautiful picture"
What convinces Pangloss that philosophical optimism is incorrect? OHHH GOT 'EM! It was a trick question! Nothing convinces Pangloss that philosophical optimism is incorrect
Eldorado: An enlightenment utopia in Voltaire's "Candide" lined with gold, jewels, no court system, no religious conflict (Deism), and advanced scientific knowledge.
Cunegonde: Candide's love interests, who initially gets him kicked out of the castle and spends her life being sought after by Candide
What caused Voltaire to write "Candide"? The Lisbon Earthquake of 1755
James: Anabaptist who dies while on the ship to Portugal saving the man who tried to kill him
What does Candide find when he sees Cunegonde again? She's grown old and ugly and now he must be forced to marry the ugly woman who used to be the young girl who kept him going through everything
Dervish: Wise man who tells Candide to get lost when he asks the meaning of life
Farmer: Tells Candide that the meaning of life is work keeping them free from the three evils: boredom, vice, and poverty
What did Candide learn? That we must cultivate our gardens: we must work without theorizing
Who is the only person who lives life "cultivating his garden"? James the Anibaptist
What does Voltaire attack in his novel other than philosophical optimism? Religious hypocrisy, class prejudice, exploitation of native Americans, political corruption, warfare
Who wrote "The Almost Christian"? John Wesley
What does it mean to be an "almost Christian" according to John Wesley? 1. Heathen honesty and justice, 2. Form of godliness (not swearing, being gracious, not drinking too much, etc.)
What do "almost Christians" lack? Sincerity
What does: "oderunt peccare boni, virtutis amore; Oderunt peccare mali, fonnidine poenae," mean? "Good men hate to sin from their love of goodness; bad men hate to sin from their fear of punishment."
What makes a person a Christian, according to John Wesley in "The Almost Christian"? 1. The love of God, 2. The love of our neighbor, 3. Belief that Jesus was the Son of God and gave His life to forgive of us sins
Pietism: Concerned that Christianity was too legalistic and not enough about the a true relationship with God
Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf: 1. Pietist 2. Tried to renew Lutheran churches 3. Gave asylum to refugees 4. Created the Herrnhut community of Moravian believers 5. Encouraged foreign missions
John Wesley: 1. Founded Methodism 2. Wrote about the "Almost Christian" from his own experience
Methodism: Christian denomination focused on method as a way to be close to God
Altarsgate Experience: John Wesley received assurance of salvation from listening to a hymn, which encouraged him to start Methodism
George Whitefield: Encouraged John Wesley to preach methodist beliefs in the field when he was not invited into churches
5 Contributions of methodism: 1. Field preaching 2. Itineracy 3. Lay preaching 4. Woman preaching 5. Hymns
3 types of art: 1. Drama a. Human emotion b. Intellectual challenge c. Small paintings for private display 2. History: a. Classical or Biblical b. Large paintings for Public display 3. Genre: a. Ordinary life b. Small for private display
David: The master
Greuze: The populist
Fragonard: The pro bro
Chardin: The poet
Rococo: 1700-1775: Art style centered in upper-class France
Chinoiserie: Chinese-themed fad
"Departure from the Isle of Cythera" Antoine Watteau, Rococo
Rondo alla Turca, "Turkish March" Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Who wrote "Vindication of the Rights of Women"? Mary Wollstonecraft
In "Vindication of the Rights of Women", what does Mary Wollstonecraft say about women and men in regards to strength of body and mind? Women are naturally weaker physically, but as strong in intelligence and reasoning skills as men
What virtues does Mary Wollstonecraft urge women to pursue in "Vindication of the Rights of Women"? 1. Strength in the mind and body 2. Virtue 3. Education
According to Mary Wollstonecraft in "Vindication of the Rights of Women," what are girls taught? Girls are taught to be dainty, soft-tempered, obedient, and beautiful because it's the only was to win the affections of a man and gain a standing in society
Why did Mary Wollstonecraft write "Vindication of the Rights of Women"? She wanted equal rights for women; she wanted women to be allowed to receive the same education as boys, to be able to get jobs, and to be treated like human beings
Wales, england, scotland, ireland**
Essay: history
Essay: literature
Who does Mary Wollstonecraft criticize for his views on education? Rosseau
How does Mary Wollstonecraft criticize women? They've bought into the education given to them, and rather than trying to educate themselves, they just stick with the status quo
There should be one standard of _____________ according to Mary Wollstonecraft Virtue, which is a standard of morals
What are women treated as in the education system according to Mary Wollstonecraft? Children
What does Mary Wollstonecraft compare women's education to? To soldiers, who are taught to blindly follow orders regardless of their own personal beliefs and thoughts
According to Mary Wollstonecraft, what is a good reason to get married? What's a bad reason? Friendship. Passion.
Why does Mary Wollstonecraft state that most of the women who make history are often homely? Because they haven't succumbed to education
Why does Mary Wollstonecraft say that a wife in an abusing relationship is a better mother? She is able to find her own resources
Critics of the enlightenment: Alexander Pope, Swift (except view of progress), Zinzendorf
Thinkers of the enlightenment: Voltaire, Locke, Wollstonecraft
Who led Pietism? Zinzendorf
Created by: 1145016488915233