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|Which of the following is NOT a function of the respiratory system?
|transporting oxygen to the tissues
|Which type of epithelial tissue is NOT seen in the respiratory mucosa?
|Which of the following structures form(s) the floor of the nasal cavity?
|Which part of the pharynx is the most superior?
|What is the name of the large, shield-shaped cartilage of the larynx?
|Which part of the larynx is involved in the production of sound?
|The tracheal cartilages are __________.
|The left lung has __________ lobe(s), whereas the right lung has __________ lobes.
|The bronchioles have walls dominated by __________.
|Which of the following cell types are responsible for phagocytosis of particles or pathogens that reach the alveoli?
|What is specific term for the processes involved in breathing?
|According to Boyle’s law, if the volume of a sealed container of gases __________, then the pressure in that container __________.
|When the diaphragm contracts, the volume of the lungs __________.
|Which gas has the highest partial pressure in the air we breathe?
|How is oxygen most often carried in the blood?
|bound to heme in hemoglobin
|Carbon dioxide is most often transported __________.
|as molecules of carbonic acid that dissociate to form bicarbonate and hydrogen ions
|The Hering-Breuer reflexes include which of the following?
|Which of the following is found in the medulla oblongata and functions in forced breathing?
|ventral respiratory group (VRG)
|What homeostatic imbalance is normal to a certain extent in individuals over 50 but is greatly enhanced by cigarette smoke and other irritants?
|A person living at a high altitude would see all of the following changes EXCEPT __________.
|decreased respiratory rate
|The larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles all make up the
|lower respiratory tract.
|The respiratory defense system is important because it
|helps warm the air, keeps out debris, helps filter the air, keeps out pathogens.
|Air entering the body is filtered, warmed, and humidified by the
|upper respiratory tract.
|Inhaling through the nostrils is preferred over the mouth because
|it allows better conditioning of the inhaled air.
|Gas exchange between air and circulating blood takes place within the
|Which of these structures is located outside the upper respiratory system?
|The nasopharynx transitions into the oropharynx at the level of the
|The ________ is shared by the respiratory and digestive systems.
|Which of the following organs is not part of the lower respiratory system?
|create turbulence in the air to trap particulate matter in mucus.
|The openings to the nasal cavity are the
|The auditory tubes open into the
|The glottis is
|the opening to the larynx.
|The vocal folds are located within the
|The ring-shaped cartilage just inferior to the thyroid cartilage is the ________ cartilage
|Tina is singing a song. At a certain point in the song, she forces a large volume of air out of the glottis and at the same time increases the tension on her vocal cords. The sound that she produces is
|high pitched and loud.
|After menopause, about 50 percent of women experience lower vocal tones, more throat dryness and the need to clear their throats more often. Of the following, which is the most likely hypothesis to explain this phenomenon?
|Since sex steroids play a role in size of the larynx and vocal cords, the lack of estrogen causes the vocal cords to become dry and mucus coats the vocal cords in an effort to lubricate them, resulting in lowered vocal tones.
|During a choking episode, most foreign objects are lodged in the ________ bronchus due to its larger diameter and steeper angle.
|Which of the following statements about the trachea is false?
|It is reinforced with D-shaped cartilages.
|The ________ branch from the trachea at the carina
|The C shape of the tracheal cartilages is important because
|large masses of food can move through the esophagus.
|Very aggressive pathogens such as the bacterium responsible for tuberculosis can easily overwhelm the protective features of the respiratory system. Less aggressive pathogens may be stopped by all of the following EXCEPT __________.
|Cystic fibrosis is an inherited respiratory disorder in which the mucus escalator no longer functions because of the presence of excessively dense and viscous mucus. Which of the following components of the respiratory system are affected by cystic fibrosis?
|goblet cells cilia lungs
|Secondary bronchi supply air to the
|lobes of the lungs.
|The interlobular septa divide the lungs into
|The actual sites of gas exchange within the lungs are the
|respiratory membranes of the alveoli.
|The respiratory membrane of the gas exchange surfaces consists of
|simple squamous epithelium.
|The most superior portion of the lung is called the
|Primary bronchi are to ________ as secondary bronchi are to ________.
|extrapulmonary bronchi; intrapulmonary bronchi
|The ________ fissure separates the lobes of the left lung.
|A unique feature of the left lung is the
|The unit of measurement for pressure preferred by many respiratory therapists is
|In which direction does carbon dioxide move during internal respiration?
|from the tissue cells into the blood
|No air is moving in or out of the lungs in this image. Which of the following describes the pressures of the atmosphere ("P outside") and the lungs ("P inside")?
|P inside = P outside
|In a condition known as pneumothorax, the integrity of the pleural cavity is lost, which leads to a collapsed lung. What is one explanation for why this occurs?
|The pleural fluid that bonds the visceral and parietal pleurae together is broken by air.
|The term ________ describes the result from an injury that permits air to leak into the intrapleural space.
|Which of the following muscles might be recruited to increase inspired volume?
|pectoralis minor, serratus anterior, scalenes, sternocleidomastoid
|The function of pulmonary ventilation is to
|maintain adequate alveolar ventilation.
|If a patient inhales as deeply as possible and then exhales as much as possible, the volume of air expelled would be the patient's
|Boyle's law of gases states that
|if the volume goes up, the pressure goes down.
|The normal respiratory rate of a resting adult ranges from ________ breaths each minute, or roughly one for every four heartbeats.
|the diaphragm and rib muscles contract.
|From which structures do oxygen molecules move from the lungs to the blood?
|Which statement is correct?
|In the blood, oxygen is bound to hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells.
|After blood becomes oxygenated,
|it returns to the heart, and is then pumped to body cells.
|is a protein that can bind four molecules of oxygen.
|Which of the following would be the oxygen pressure entering, and leaving, this capillary?
|entering Po2 40 mm Hg, leaving Po2 100 mm Hg
|The physiological effects of nitrogen in the human body are not fully understood as of yet except during decompression sickness. Decompression sickness occurs when the partial pressure of nitrogen drops, and nitrogen no longer stays in solution but forms bubbles, causing tremendous pain in joints. This relationship between partial pressure and solubility is explained in __________.
|Dalton's law states that
|in a mixture of gases such as air, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of the gases in the mixture.
|Dalton's law of gases relates to
|partial pressure of a gas in a mixture of gases.
|A SCUBA diver has been deep underwater and suddenly rises to the surface too fast. Why does the diver get decompression sickness?
|Pressure decreases too fast and nitrogen gas in the blood forms bubbles.
|Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as
|Which of the following descriptions accurately describes Boyle’s law?
|The pressure of gas in your lungs is inversely proportional to the volume in your lungs.
|Which muscles, when contracted, would increase the volume of air in the thoracic cavity?
|diaphragm and external intercostals
|Which pressure is the result of the natural tendency of the lungs to decrease their size (because of elasticity) and the opposing tendency of the thoracic wall to pull outward and enlarge the lungs?
|During an allergic reaction, which of the following would aid respiration?
|If the transpulmonary pressure equals zero, what will happen to the lung?
|lungs will collapse
|The most important chemical regulator of respiration is
|The apneustic centers of the pons
|provide stimulation to the inspiratory center.
|Which of the following age-based changes is false?
|Vital capacity increases.
|In order for the respiratory system to maintain homeostatic tissue levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide, it must coordinate constantly with the __________ system.