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chap 12

Diagnostic, Symptomatic, and Related Terms

QuestionAnswer
adnexa Accessory parts of a structure
atresia Congenital absence or closure of a normal body opening, such as the vagina
choriocarcinoma Malignant neoplasm of the uterus or at the site of an ectopic pregnancy
contraceptive diaphragm Contraceptive device consisting of a hemisphere of thin rubber bonded to a flexible ring; inserted into the vagina together with spermicidal jelly or cream up to 2 hours before coitus so that spermatozoa cannot enter the uterus, thus preventing conception
corpus luteum Ovarian scar tissue that results from rupturing of a follicle during ovulation and becomes a small yellow body that produces progesterone after ovulation
dyspareunia Occurrence of pain during sexual intercourse
endocervicitis Inflammation of the mucous lining of the cervix uteri
fibroids Benign uterine tumors composed of muscle and fibrous tissue; also called leiomyomas (myomas) and fibromyomata uteri
infertility Inability or diminished ability to produce offspring
hormonal contraception Use of hormones to suppress ovulation and prevent conception
oral contraceptive pills Birth control pills containing estrogen and progesterone in varying proportions
menarche Beginning of menstrual function
oligomenorrhea Scanty or infrequent menstrual flow
perineum Region between the vulva and anus that constitutes the pelvic floor
puberty Period during which secondary sex characteristics begin to develop and the capability of sexual reproduction is attained
pyosalpinx Pus in the fallopian tube
retroversion Turning or state of being turned back, especially an entire organ, such as the uterus, being tipped from its normal position
sterility Inability of the female to become pregnant or the male to impregnate the female
vaginismus Painful spasm of the vagina from contraction of its surrounding muscles
viable Capable of sustaining life; denotes a fetus sufficiently developed to live outside of the uterus
abortion Termination of pregnancy before the embryo or fetus is capable of surviving outside the uterus
abruptio placentae Premature separation of a normally situated placenta
amnion Membrane, continuous with and covering the fetal side of the placenta, that forms the outer surface of the umbilical cord
breech presentation Common abnormality of delivery in which the fetal buttocks or feet present first rather than the head
Down syndrome, trisomy 21 Congenital condition characterized by physical malformations and some degree of mental retardation
dystocia Difficult labor, which may be produced by the large size of the fetus or the small size of the pelvic outlet
eclampsia Most serious form of toxemia during pregnancy
ectopic pregnancy Pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum does not reach the uterine cavity but becomes implanted on any tissue other than the lining of the uterine cavity, such as a fallopian tube, an ovary, the abdomen, or even the cervix uteri
gravida Pregnant woman
multigravida Woman who has been pregnant more than once
multipara Woman who has delivered more than one viable infant
para Woman who has given birth to one or more viable infants
parturition Process of giving birth
pelvimetry Measurement of pelvic dimensions to determine whether the head of the fetus will be able to pass through the bony pelvis during the delivery process
placenta previa Condition in which the placenta is attached near the cervix and ruptures prematurely, with spotting as the early symptom
primigravida Woman pregnant for the first time
primipara Woman who has given birth to one viable infant, her first child, indicated by the notation para I on the patient’s chart
puerperium Period of 42 days after childbirth and expulsion of the placenta and membranes, during which the reproductive organs usually return to normal
amniocentesis Transabdominal puncture of the amniotic sac under ultrasound guidance using a needle and syringe to remove amniotic fluid
insufflation Delivery of pressurized air or gas into a cavity, chamber, or organ to allow visual examination, remove an obstruction, or apply medication
tubal Test for patency of the uterine tubes made by transuterine insufflation with carbon dioxide; also called Rubin test
colposcopy Visual examination of the vagina and cervix with an optical magnifying instrument (colposcope)
laparoscopy Visual examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope through one or more small incisions in the abdominal wall, usually at the umbilicus
chorionic villus sampling (CVS) Sampling of placental tissues for prenatal diagnosis of potential genetic defects
endometrial biopsy Removal of a sample of uterine endometrium for microscopic study
Papanicolaou (Pap) test Cytological study used to detect abnormal cells sloughed from the cervix and vagina, usually obtained during routine pelvic examination
mammography Radiographic examination of the breast to screen for breast cancer
hysterosalpingography Radiography of the uterus and uterine tubes (oviducts) following injection of a contrast medium
ultrasonography (US) Process by which high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) produce and display an image from reflected “echoes” on a monitor; also called ultrasound, sonography, and echo
pelvic US of the pelvic region used to evaluate abnormalities in the female reproductive system as well as the fetus in the obstetric patient
transvaginal US of the pelvic area performed with a probe inserted into the vagina, which provides sharper images of pathological and normal structures within the pelvis
breast implant revision Surgery designed to correct an unsuccessful procedure that has created a cosmetic problem or poses a health risk
cerclage Suturing the cervix to prevent it from dilating prematurely during pregnancy, thus decreasing the chance of a spontaneous abortion. The sutures are removed prior to delivery
cesarean birth Incision of the abdomen and uterus to remove the fetus; also called C-section
colpocleisis Surgical closure of the vaginal canal
conization Excision of a cone-shaped piece of tissue, such as mucosa of the cervix, for histological examination
cordocentesis Sampling of fetal blood drawn from the umbilical vein and performed under ultrasound guidance
cryosurgery Process of freezing tissue to destroy cells; also called cryocautery
dilatation and curettage (D&C) Widening of the cervical canal with a dilator and scraping of the uterine endometrium with a curette
episiorrhaphy Repair of a lacerated vulva or an episiotomy
episiotomy Incision of the perineum from the vaginal orifice usually done to prevent tearing of the tissue and to facilitate childbirth
hysterectomy Excision of the uterus
subtotal Hysterectomy where the cervix, ovaries, and fallopian tubes remain
total Hysterectomy where the cervix is removed but the ovaries and fallopian tubes remain; also called complete hysterectomy
total plus bilateral salpingooophorectomy Total (complete) hysterectomy, including uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, and ovaries
intrauterine device Plastic or metal object placed inside the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterine lining
lumpectomy Excision of a small primary breast tumor (a “lump”) and some of the normal tissue that surrounds it
mammoplasty Surgical reconstruction of the breast(s) to change the size, shape, or position
augmentation Breast enlargement to increase breast size or to replace one that has been surgically removed
reduction Breast reduction to reduce the size of a large, pendulous breast
mastectomy Excision of the entire breast
total (simple) Excision of the entire breast, nipple, areola, and the involved overlying skin; also called simple mastectomy
modified radical Excision of the entire breast, including the lymph nodes in the underarm (axillary dissection)
radical Excision of the entire breast, all underarm lymph nodes, and chest wall muscles under the breast
myomectomy Excision of a myomatous tumor, generally uterine
reconstructive breast surgery Reconstruction of a breast that has been removed because of cancer or other disease
tissue (skin) expansion Common breast reconstruction technique in which a balloon expander is inserted beneath the skin and chest muscle, saline solution is injected to increase size, and the expander is then replaced with a more permanent implant
transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flap Surgical creation of a skin flap using skin and fat from the lower half of the abdomen which is passed under the skin to the breast area. The abdominal tissue (flap) is shaped into a natural-looking breast and sutured into place
salpingo-oophorectomy Excision of an ovary and fallopian tube
tubal ligation Procedure that ties (ligates) the fallopian tubes to prevent pregnancy
Created by: Esuvill0