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Intro to WW II

World War II Elective: Intro to World War II

Benito Mussolini Italian dictator who created Fascism. Gained power through use of his “blackshirts”. Orchestrated Italy’s invasion of Ethiopia.
Haile Selassie Ethiopian Emperor who made a passionate plea to the League of Nations to condemn the Italian invasion of his country.
Adolf Hitler German dictator who is responsible for the rise of the Nazis, attempting to “right the wrongs of Versailles”, and outright German expansion.
Marinus van der Lubbe German Communist who set fire to the Reichstag and was blamed as being part of a wider communist conspiracy against Germany.
Ernst Rhöm Leader of the SA who was assassinated during the “Night of Long Knives”
Henry Cabot Lodge US Senator who adamantly opposed the Treaty of Versailles because he wished to free the US of “foreign entanglements”
Neville Chamberlain British Prime Minister whose policy of appeasement can best be seen at the Munich Conference. Believed agreements with Hitler ensured “peace for our time”
Woodrow Wilson American President whose 14 Points represented an outline for peace after WWI.
Paul von Hindenburg German president who appointed Hitler Chancellor.
Kellogg-Briand Pact Agreement signed by 62 nations that outlawed nondefensive war. It was largely ineffective due to loopholes
Mein Kampf Hitler’s book that shared his views on WWI, Jews, Communists, and his vision for the postwar world.
Fascism Political movement of extreme nationalism, emphasis of the state over the individual, and dictatorship.
Enabling Act Law passed by the Reichstag that gave Hitler virtual dictatorial powers.
Reichstag The German legislature.
Sudetenland Portion of Czechoslovakia with a majority German population that was given to Hitler at the Munich Conference.
Treaty of Versailles Document that ended WWI. Contained clauses meant to punish Germany such as the surrender of German territory, reparations, and the “war guilt” clause.
Hitler Youth Movement that was designed to give Hitler and the Nazi Party the next generation of loyal citizens.
Kristallnacht Organized attacks on Jewish homes, businesses and synagogues. Literally means “Night of Broken Glass”
Reparations Payments for war damages.
Lebensraum German word for living space.
Appeasement Policy of giving into demands in order to maintain peace.
Wilson’s 14 Points A plan for peace after WWI. Included clauses protecting freedom of the seas, promotion of nationalism, disarmament, and the formation of a League of Nations.
Dawes Plan Allowed a manageable schedule of payment of reparations as well as relaxing rules regarding loans by US banks to Germany.
Nuremburg Laws Series of laws designed to strip Jews of the rights and, eventually, citizenship.
Neutrality Acts A series of laws passed by the US Congress that forbid trade with any nation at war (belligerents).
Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact Agreement whose secret clauses allowed for the division of Poland.
League of Nations International organization formed after WWI to maintain peace. Repeatedly shows its ineffectiveness between the wars.
1936 Olympics Seen as an opportunity to celebrate Germany and Aryan racial purity. This did not work out as planned as the event was dominated by Jesse Owens.
Panay Incident The accidental sinking of an American gunboat which killed two and wounded 30.
Beer Hall Putsch Attempt by Hitler and the Nazi’s to seize power by capturing government leaders in Bavaria. Ultimately, this failed leading to Hitler’s imprisonment.
Black Tuesday The crash of the US stock market leading to a worldwide recession, breakdown of the Dawes Plan, and increased tensions in Europe.
Spanish Civil War Often seen as a dress rehearsal for WWII with Germany and Italy supplying one side with money, weapons, and troops, and the Soviet Union supplying the other side.
Munich Conference Often seen as the best example of appeasement where the British and French give Germany and Hitler the Sudetenland.
“Night of Long Knives” Attack on many leaders of the SA and other perceived threats to Adolf Hitler.
Rape of Nanking (Nanjing) The Japanese murdering of at least 300,000 Chinese citizens.
Anschluss The uniting of Germany and Austria, which was forbidden by the settlements of WWI.
Created by: mrfordglobal