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Chapter 15, MedTerms

The Female Reproductive System; Pregnancy and Birth

vasectomy/tubal ligation cutting and tying the tubes that carry the gametes
birth control pills estrogen and progestin or progestin alone taken orally to prevent ovulation
birth control shot injection of synthetic progesterone every three months to prevent ovulation
birth control patch adhesive patch placed on body that administers estrogen and progestin through the skin; left on for three weeks and removed for a fourth week
birth control ring flexible ring inserted into vagina that releases hormones internally; left in place for three weeks and removed for a fourth week
condom sheath that prevents sperm cells from contacting an ovum; a male condom fits over an erect penis; a female condom fits in the vagina and covers the cervix
diaphragm (with spermicide) rubber cap that fits over cervix and prevents sperm entrance
contraceptive sponge (with spermicide) soft, disposable foam disk containing spermicide, which is moistened with water and inserted into vagina
intrauterine device (IUD) metal or plastic device inserted into uterus through vagina; prevents fertilization and implantation by release of copper or birth control hormones
spermicide chemicals used to kill sperm; best when used in combination with a barrier method
fertility awareness abstinence during fertile part of cycle as determined by menstrual history, basal body temperature, or quality of cervical mucus
cervix Neck; usually means the lower narrow portion (neck) of the uterus (root: cervic/o); also called the cervix uteri
clitoris A small erectile body anterior to the urethral opening that is similar in developmental origin to the penis (roots: clitor/o, clitorid/o)
contraception The prevention of pregnancy
corpus luteum This small yellow structure that develops from the ovarian follicle after ovulation and secretes progesterone and estrogen
cul-de-sac A blind pouch, such as the recess between the rectum and the uterus; the rectouterine pouch or pouch of Douglas
endometrium The inner lining of the uterus
estrogen A group of hormones that produce female characteristics and prepare the uterus for the fertilized egg; the most active of these is estradiol
fallopian tube A tube extending from the upper lateral portion of the uterus that carries the ovum to the uterus (root: salping/o); also called uterine tube
fimbriae The long finger-like extensions of the uterine tube that wave to capture the released ovum (singular: fimbria)
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that acts on the gonads; in the female, it stimulates ripening of ova in the ovary
fornix An arch-like space, such as the space between the uppermost wall of the vagina and the cervix; from Latin meaning arch
greater vestibular gland A small gland that secretes mucus through a duct that opens near the vaginal orifice; also called Bartholin gland
labia majora The two large folds of skin that form the sides of the vulva (root labi/o means "lip") (singular: labium majus)
labia minora The two small folds of skin within the labia majora (singular: labium minus)
luteinizing hormone (LH) A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that acts on the gonads; in the female, it stimulates ovulation and corpus luteum formation
mammary gland A specialized gland capable of secreting milk in the female (roots: mamm/o, mast/o); the breast
menarche The first menstrual period, which normally occurs during puberty
menopause Cessation of menstrual cycles in the female
menstruation The cyclic discharge of blood and mucosal tissues from the lining of the nonpregnant uterus (roots: men/o, mens); menstrual period, menses
myometrium The muscular wall of the uterus
ovarian follicle The cluster of cells in which the ovum ripens in the ovary
ovary A female gonad (roots: ovari/o, oophor/o)
ovulation The release of a mature ovum from the ovary (from ovule, meaning "little egg")
ovum The female gamete or reproductive cell (roots: oo, ov/o) (plural: ova)
perineum The region between the thighs from the external genitalia to the anus (root: perine/o)
progesterone A hormone produced by the corpus luteum and the placenta that maintains the endometrium for pregnancy
tubal ligation Surgical constriction of the uterine tubes to produce sterilization
uterine tube A tube extending from the upper lateral portion of the uterus that carries the ovum to the uterus (root: salping/o); also called fallopian tube
uterus The organ that receives the fertilized egg and maintains the developing offspring during pregnancy (roots: uter/o, metr, hyster/o)
vagina The muscular tube between the cervix and the vulva (roots: vagin/o, colp/o)
vulva The external female genital organs (roots: vulv/o, episi/o)
gyn/o, gynec/o woman
men/o, mens month, menstruation
oo ovum, egg cell
ov/o, ovul/o ovum, egg cell
ovari/o ovary
oophor/o ovary
salping/o uterine tube, tube
uter/o uterus
metr/o, metr/i uterus
hyster/o uterus
cervic/o cervix, neck
vagin/o vagina
colp/o vagina
vulv/o vulva
episi/o vulva
perine/o perineum
clitor/o, clitorid/o clitoris
mamm/o breast, mammary gland
mast/o breast, mammary gland
candidiasis Infection with the fungus Candida, a common cause of vaginitis
dysmenorrhea Painful or difficult menstruation; a common disorder that may be caused by infection, use of an intrauterine device, endometriosis, overproduction of prostaglandins, or other factors
endometriosis Growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, usually in the pelvic cavity
fibroid Benign tumor of smooth muscle
leiomyoma Benign tumor of smooth muscle, usually in the uterine wall (myometrium); in the uterus, may cause bleeding and pressure on the bladder or rectum; also called fibroid or myoma
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) Condition caused by the spread of infection from the reproductive tract into the pelvic cavity; commonly caused by sexually transmitted gonorrhea and Chlamydia infections
salpingitis Inflammation of a uterine tube, typically caused by urinary tract infection or sexually transmitted infection; chronic salpingitis may lead to infertility or ectopic pregnancy
vaginitis Inflammation of the vagina
colposcope Instrument of the vagina
cone biopsy Removal of a cone of tissue from the cervical lining for cytologic examination; also called conization
dilation and curettage (D&C) Procedure in which the cervix is dilated (widened) and the uterine lining is scraped with a curette
hysterectomy Surgical removal of the uterus; most commonly done because of tumors; often the uterine tubes and ovaries are removed as well
mammography Radiographic study of the breast for the detection of breast cancer; the image obtained is a mammogram
mastectomy Excision of breast tissue to eliminate malignancy
oophorectomy Excision of an ovary
Pap smear Study of cells collected from the cervix and vagina for early detection of cancer; also called Papanicolaou smear or Pap test
salpingectomy Surgical removal of the uterine tube
sentinel node biopsy Biopsy of the first lymph nodes to receive drainage from a tumor; used to determine spread of cancer in planning treatment
stereotactic biopsy Needle biopsy using a computer-guided imaging system to locate suspicious tissue and remove samples for study
tomosynthesis Three-dimensional x-ray imaging technique for detection of breast cancer; digital tomosythesis
adnexa Appendages, such as the adnexa uteri—the ovaries, uterine tubes, and uterine ligaments
areola A pigmented ring, such as the dark area around the nipple of the breast
Graafian follicle A mature ovarian follicle
hymen A fold of mucous membrane that partially covers the entrance of the vagina
mons pubis The rounded, fleshy elevation anterior to the pubic joint that is covered with hair after puberty
oocyte An immature ovum
perimenopause The period immediately before menopause; begins at the time of irregular menstrual cycles and ends one year after the last menstrual period; averages three to four years
vestibule The space between the labia minora that contains the openings of the urethra, vagina, and ducts of the greater vestibular glands
cystocele Herniation of the urinary bladder into the wall of the vagina
dyspareunia Pain during sexual intercourse
fibrocystic disease of the breast A condition in which there are palpable lumps in the breasts, usually associated with pain and tenderness; these lumps or "thickenings" change with the menstrual cycle and must be distinguished from malignant tumors by diagnostic methods
hirsutism Excess hair growth
leukorrhea White or yellowish discharge from the vagina; infection and other disorders may change the amount, color, or odor of the discharge
microcalcification Small deposit of calcium that appears as a white spot on mammograms; most microcalcifications are harmless, but some might indicate breast cancer
prolapse of the uterus Downward displacement of the uterus with the cervix sometimes protruding from the vagina
rectocele Herniation of the rectum into the wall of the vagina; also called proctocele
culdocentesis Puncture of the vaginal wall to sample fluid from the rectouterine space for diagnosis
episiorrhaphy Suture of the vulva or suture of the perineum cut in an epistiotomy (incision to ease childbirth)
laparoscopy Endoscopic examination of the abdomen; may include surgical procedures, such as tubal ligation
myomectomy Surgical removal of a uterine leiomyoma (fibroid, myoma)
speculum An instrument used to enlarge the opening of a passage or cavity to allow examination
teletherapy Delivery of radiation to a tumor from an external beam source, as compared to implantation of radioactive material (brachytherapy) or systemic administration of radionuclide
aromatase inhibitor (AI) Agent that inhibits estrogen production; used for postmenopausal treatment of breast cancers that respond to estrogen; examples are exemestane (Aromasin), anastrozole (Arimidex), and letrozole (Femara)
bisphosphonate Agent used to prevent and treat osteoporosis; increases bone mass by decreasing bone turnover; examples are aldronate (Fosamax) and risedronate (Actonel)
HER2 inhibitor Drug used to treat breast cancers that show excess receptors (HER2) for human epidermal growth factor; example is trastuzumab (Herceptin)
paclitaxel Antineoplastic agent derived from yew trees used mainly in treatment of breast and ovarian cancer; Taxol
selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) Drug that acts on estrogen receptors; examples are tamoxifen (Nolvadex) and raloxifene (Evista), which is also used to prevent bone loss after menopause
AI Aromatase inhibitor
BRCA1 Breast cancer gene 1
BRCA2 Breast cancer gene 2
BSE Breast self-examination
BSO Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy
BV Bacterial vaginosis
CIN Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
D&C Dilation and curettage
DCIS Ductal carcinoma in situ
DES Diethylstilbestrol
DUB Dysfunctional uterine bleeding
FSH Follicle-stimulating hormone
GC Gonococcus (cause of gonorrhea)
GYN Gynecology
HPV Human papillomavirus
HRT Hormone replacement therapy
IUD Intrauterine device
LH Luteinizing hormone
MHT Menopausal hormone therapy
NGU Nongonococcal urethritis
PCOS Polycystic ovarian syndrome
PID Pelvic inflammatory disease
PMS Premenstrual syndrome
SERM Selective estrogen receptor modulator
STD Sexually transmitted disease
STI Sexually transmitted infection
TAH Total abdominal hysterectomy
TSS Toxic shock syndrome
UFE Uterine fibroid embolization
VD Venereal disease (sexually transmitted disease)
amniotic sac The membranous sac filled with fluid that holds the fetus; also called amnion (root: amnio)
Apgar score A system of rating an infant's physical condition immediately after birth; five features are rated as 0, 1, or 2 at one and five minutes after delivery and sometimes thereafter; the maximum possible score at each test interval is 10
chorion The outermost layer of the embryo that, with the endometrium, forms the placenta (adjective: chorionic)
colostrum Breast fluid that is secreted in the first few days after giving birth before milk is produced
ductus arteriosus A fetal blood vessel that connects the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta, thus allowing blood to bypass the lungs
embryo The stage in development between the zygote and the fetus, extending from the second through the eighth week of growth in the uterus (root: embry/o) (adjective: embryonic)
fertilization The union of an ovum and a spermatozoon
fetus The developing child in the uterus from the third month to birth (root: fet/o) (adjective: fetal)
foramen ovale A small hole in the interatrial septum in the fetal heart that allows blood to pass directly from the right to the left side of the heart
gestation The period of development from contraception to birth
gravida Pregnant woman
human chorlonic gonadotropin (hCG) A hormone secreted by the embryo early in pregnancy that maintains the corpus luteum so that it will continue to secrete hormones
lactation The secretion of milk from the mammary glands
oxytocin A pituitary hormone that stimulates contractions of the uterus; it also stimulates release ("letdown") of milk from the breasts
para Woman who has produced a viable infant; multiple births are considered as single pregnancies
parturition Childbirth (root: nat/i); labor (root: toc/o)
placenta The organ composed of fetal and maternal tissues that nourishes and maintains the developing fetus
prostaglandins A group of hormones with varied effects, including the stimulation of uterine contractions
umbilical cord The structure that connects the fetus to the placenta; it contains vessels that carry blood between the mother and the fetus
zygote The fertilized ovum
amnio amnion, amniotic sac
embry/o embryo
fet/o fetus
toc/o labor
nat/i birth
lact/o milk
galact/o milk
gravida pregnant woman
para woman who has given birth
albinism recessive gene mutation; lack of pigmentation
cystic fibrosis recessive gene mutation; affects respiratory system, pancreas, and sweat glands; most common hereditary disease in white populations
Down syndrome extra chromosome 21; slanted eyes, short stature, mental retardation, and others; incidence increases with increasing maternal age; trisomy 21 syndrome
fragile X chromosome defect in an X (sex-determining) chromosome; reduced intellectual abilities, autism, hyperactivity; enlarged head and ears; passed from mothers to sons with the X chromosome (sex-linked)
hemophilia recessive gene mutation on the X chromosome; bleeding disease inherited with an X chromosome and usually passed from mothers to sons
Huntington disease dominant gene mutation; altered metabolism destroys specific nerve cells; appears in adulthood and is fatal within about 10 years; causes motor and mental disorders
Klinefelter syndrome extra X chromosome; lack of sexual development, lowered intelligence
Marfan syndrome dominant gene mutation; disease of connective tissue with weakness of the aorta
neurofibromatosis dominant gene mutation; multiple skin tumors containing nerve tissue
phenylketonuria (PKU) recessive gene mutation; lack of enzyme to metabolize an amino acid (phenylalanine); neurologic signs, mental retardation, lack of pigment; tested for at birth; special diet can prevent retardation
sickle cell anemia recessive gene mutation; abnormally shaped red cells block blood vessels; mainly affects black populations
Tay-Sachs disease recessive gene mutation; an enzyme deficiency causes lipid to accumulate in nerve cells and other tissues; causes death in early childhood; carried i eastern European Jewish populations
Turner syndrome single X chromosome; sexual immaturity, short stature, possible lowered intelligence
abortion Termination of a pregnancy before the fetus is capable of surviving outside the uterus, usually at 20 weeks or 500 g; may be spontaneous or induced; a spontaneous abortion is commonly called a miscarriage
anencephaly Congenital absence of a brain
atresia Congenital absence or closure of a normal body opening
carrier An individual who has an unexpressed genetic defect that can be passed to his or her children
cleft lip A congenital separation of the upper lip
cleft palate A congenital split in the roof of the mouth
congenital disorder A disorder that is present at birth; may be developmental or hereditary (familial)
eclampsia Convulsions and coma occurring during pregnancy or after delivery and associated with the conditions of pregnancy-induced hypertension (adjective: eclamptic)
ectopic pregnancy Development of the fertilized ovum outside the body of the uterus; usually occurs in the uterine tube (tubal pregnancy) but may occur in other parts of the reproductive tract or abdominal cavity
hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) Disease that results from Rh incompatibility between the blood of a mother and her fetus
mastitis Inflammation of the breast, usually associated with the early weeks of breast-feeding
mutation A change in the genetic material of the cell; most mutations are harmful; if the change appears in the sex cells, it can be passed to future generations
placental abruption Premature separation of the placenta; abruptio placentae
placenta previa Placental attachment in the lower portion of the uterus instead of the upper portion, as is normal; may result in hemorrhage late in pregnancy
pregnancy-induced hypertension (PH) A toxic condition of late pregnancy associated with hypertension, edema, and proteinuria that, if untreated, may lead to eclampsia; also called preeclampsia and toxemia of pregnancy
spina bifida A congenital defect in the closure of the spinal column through which the spinal cord and its membranes may project
teratogen A factor that causes developmental abnormalities in the fetus (root terat/o means "malformed fetus") (adjective: teratogenic)
amniocentesis Transabdominal puncture of the amniotic sac to remove amniotic fluid for testing; tests on the cells and fluid obtained can reveal congenital abnormalities, blood incompatibility, and sex of the fetus
chorionic villus sampling (CVS) Removal of chorionic cells through the cervix for prenatal testing; can be done earlier in pregnancy than amniocentesis
dilatation and evacuation (D&E) Widening of the cervix and removal of conception products by suction
karyotype A picture of cellular chromosomes arranged in order of decreasing size; can reveal abnormalities in the chromosomes themselves or in their number or arrangement (root kary/o means "nucleus")
ultrasonography The use of high-frequency sound waves to produce a photograph of an organ or tissue; used in obstetrics to diagnose pregnancy, multiple births, and abnormalities and also to study and measure the fetus; the image obtained is a sonogram or ultrasonogram
afterbirth The placenta and membranes delivered after birth of a child
antepartum Before childbirth, with reference to the mother
Braxton Hicks contractions Light uterine contractions that occur during pregnancy and increase in frequency and intensity during the third trimester; they strengthen the uterus for delivery
chloasma Brownish pigmentation that appears on the face during pregnancy; melasma
fontanel A membrane-covered space between cranial bones in the fetus that later becomes ossified; a soft spot; also spelled fontanelle
intrapartum Occuring during childbirth
linea nigra A dark line on the abdomen from the umbilicus to the pubic region that may appear late in pregnancy
lochia The mixture of blood, mucus, and tissue discharged from the uterus after childbirth
meconium The first feces of the newborn
peripartum Occurring during the end of pregnancy or the first few months after delivery, with reference to the mother
postpartum After childbirth, with reference to the mother
premature Describing an infant born before the organ systems are fully developed; immature
preterm Occurring before the 37th week of gestation; describing an infant born before the 37th week of gestation
puerperium The first 42 days after childbirth, during which the mother's reproductive organs usually return to normal (root puer means "child")
striae atrophicae Pinkish or gray lines that appear where skin has been stretched, as in pregnancy; stretch marks, striae gravidarum
umbilicus The scar in the middle of the abdomen that marks the attachment point of the umbilical cord to the fetus; the navel
vernix caseosa The cheese-like deposit that covers and protects the fetus (literally "cheesy varnish")
cephalopelvic disproportion The condition in which the head of the fetus is larger than the mother's pelvic outlet; also called fetopelvic disproportion
choriocarcinoma A rare malignant neoplasm composed of placental tissue
galactorrhea Excessive secretion of milk or continued milk production after breast-feeding has ceased; often results from excess prolactin secretion and may signal a pituitary tumor
hydatidiform mole A benign overgrowth of placental tissue; the placenta dilates and resembles grape-like cysts; the neoplasm may invade the uterine wall, causing rupture; also called hydatid mole
hydramnios An excess of amniotic fluid; also called polyhydramnios
oligohydramnios A deficiency of amniotic fluid
patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) Persistence of the ductus arteriosus after birth so that blood continues to shunt from the pulmonary artery to the aorta
puerperal infection Infection of the genital tract after delivery
abortifacient Agent that induces abortion
alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) A fetal protein that may be elevated in amniotic fluid and maternal serum in cases of certain fetal disorders
artificial insemination (AI) Placement of active semen into the vagina or cervix for the purpose of impregnation; the semen can be from a husband, partner, or donor
cesarean section Incision of the abdominal wall and uterus for delivery of a fetus; also called cesarean birth
endometrial ablation Selective destruction of the endometrium for therapeutic purpose; done to relieve excessive menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia)
extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) A technique for pulmonary bypass in which deoxygenated blood is removed, passed through a circuit that oxygenates the blood, and then returned; used for selected newborn and pediatric patients in respiratory failure with an otherwise good prognosis
in vitro fertilization (IVF) Clinical procedure for achieving fertilization when it cannot be accomplished naturally; an oocyte (immature ovum) is removed, fertilized in the laboratory, and placed as a zygote into the uterus or fallopian tube (ZIFT, zygote intrafallopian transfer)
obstetrics The branch of medicine that treats women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium; usually combined with the practices of gynecology
pediatrics The branch of medicine that treats children and diseases of children (root ped/o means "child")
pelvimetry Measurement of the pelvis by manual examination or radiographic study to determine whether delivery of a fetus through the vagina will be possible
Pitocin Trade name for oxytocin; used to induce and hasten labor
presentation Term describing the part of the fetus that can be felt by vaginal or rectal examination; normally the head presents first (vertex presentation), but sometimes the buttocks (breech presentation), face, or other part presents first
RhoGAM Trade name for a preparation of antibody to the Rh(D) antigen; used to prevent hemolytic disease of the newborn in cases of Rh incompatibility
AB Abortion
AFP Alpha-fetoprotein
AGA Appropriate for gestational age
AI Artificial insemination
ART Assisted reproductive technology
C-section Cesarean section
CPD Cephalopelvic disproportion
CVS Chorionic villus sampling
D&E Dilatation and evacuation
ECMO Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
EDC Estimated date of confinement
FHR Fetal heart rate
FHT Fetal heart tone
FTND Full-term normal delivery
FTP Full-term pregnancy
GA Gestational age
GIFT Gamete intrafallopian transfer
hCG Human chorionic gonadotropin
HDN Hemolytic disease of the newborn
IVF In vitro fertilization
LMP Last menstrual period
NB Newborn
NICU Neonatal intensive care unit
OB Obstetrics, obstetrician
PDA Patent ductus arteriosus
PIH Pregnancy-induced hypertension
PKU Phenylketonuria
SVD Spontaneous vaginal delivery
UC Uterine contractions
UTP Uterine term pregnancy
VBAC Vaginal birth after cesarean section
ZIFT Zygote intrafallopian transfer
Created by: SeedyVampire
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