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Chapter 04, MedTerms

Cells, Tissues, and Organs

TermDefinition
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) The energy compound of the cell that stores energy needed for cell activities
carbohydrates The category of organic compounds that includes sugars and starches
cell The basic structural and functional unit of the living organism, a microscopic unit that combines with other cells to form tissues (root: cyt/o)
chromosome A thread-like body in a cell's nucleus that contains genetic information
cytology Study of cells
cytoplasm The fluid that fills a cell and holds the organelles
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) The genetic compound of the cell, makes up the genes
enzyme An organic substance that speeds the rate of a metabolic reaction
gene A hereditary unit composed of DNA and combined with other genes to form the chromosomes
glucose A simple sugar that circulates in the blood, the main energy source for metabolism (roots: gluc/o, glyc/o)
histology Study of tissues
homeostasis A steady state, a condition of internal stability and constancy
lipid A category of organic compounds that includes fats (root: lip/o)
membrane A simple, very thin, and pliable sheet of tissue that might cover an organ, line a cavity, or separate structures
metabolism The sum of all the physical and chemical reactions that occur within an organism
mitosis Cell division
mucus A thick fluid secreted by cells in membranes and glands that lubricates and protects tissues (roots: muc/o, myx/o); the adjective is mucous
organ A part of the body with a specific function, a component of a body system
nucleus The cell's control center; directs all cellular activities based on the information contained in its chromosomes (roots: nucle/o, kary/o)
organelle A specialized structure in the cytoplasm of a cell
protein A category of organic compounds that includes structural materials, enzymes, and some hormones
ribonucleic acid (RNA) An organic compound involved in the manufacture of proteins within cells
tissue A group of cells that acts together for a specific purpose (roots: hist/o, histi/o); types include epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue
plasma membrane Outer layer of the cell, composed mainly of lipids and proteins
microvilli Short extensions of the cell membrane
nucleolus Small body in the nucleus; makes ribosomes
cytosol Fluid portion of the cytoplasm
endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Network of membranes within the cytoplasm; rough ER has ribosomes attached to it; smooth ER does not
ribosomes Small bodies free in the cytoplasm or attached to the ER, composed of RNA and protein
Golgi apparatus Layers of membranes
mitochondria Large organelles with internal folded membranes
lysosomes Small sacs of digestive enzymes
peroxisomes Membrane-enclosed organelles containing enzymes
vesicles Small, membrane-bound sacs in the cytoplasm
centrioles Rod-shaped bodies (usually two) near the nucleus
surface projections Structures that extend from the cell
cilia Short, hair-like projections from the cell
flagellum Long, whip-like extensions from the cell
morph/o form
cyt/o, -cyte cell
nucle/o nucleus
kary/o nucleus
hist/o, histi/o tissue
fibr/o fiber
reticul/o network
aden/o gland
papill/o nipple
myx/o mucus
muc/o mucus, mucous membrane
somat/o, -some body, small body
blast/o, -blast immature cell, productive cell, embryonic cell
gen origin, formation
phag/o eat, ingest
phil attract, absorb
plas formation, molding, development
trop act on, affect
troph/o feeding, growth, nourishment
-ase enzyme
-ose sugar
hydr/o water, fluid
gluc/o glucose
glyc/o sugar, glucose
sacchar/o sugar
amyl/o starch
lip/o lipid, fat
adip/o fat
steat/o fatty
prote/o protein
amino acids The nitrogen-containing compounds that make up proteins
anabolism The type of metabolism in which body substances are made, the building phase of metabolism
catabolism The type of metabolism in which substances are broken down for energy and simple compounds
collagen A fibrous protein found in connective tissue
cortex The outer region of an organ
glycogen A complex sugar compound stored in liver and muscles and broken down into glucose when needed for energy
interstitial Between parts, such as the spaces between cells in a tissue
medulla The inner region of an organ, marrow (root: medull/o)
parenchyma The functional tissue of an organ
parietal Pertaining to a wall, describes a membrane that lines a body cavity
soma The body
stem cell An immature cell that has the capacity to develop into any of a variety of different cell types, a precursor cell
visceral Pertaining to the internal organs; describes a membrane on the surface of an organ
Levels of body organization Chemicals: cells: tissues: organs: systems: organism
The function of circulation is operated by... the cardiovascular system and the lymphatic system
The function of nutrition and fluid balance is operated by... the respiratory system, the digestive system, and the urinary system
The function of production of offspring is operated by... the male and female reproductive systems
The function of coordination and control is operated by... the nervous system and the endocrine system
The function of body structure and movement is operated by... the skeletal system and the muscular system
The function of body covering is operated by... the integumentary system
Created by: SeedyVampire