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World History Exam

What are the driving forces (main motives) for imperialism? To gain land and trying to expand
What is the Berlin Conference? What happened there? Who was not invited? A meeting where Europeans agreed on rules for dividing Africa, Africa
What is Social Darwinism, and how does Social Darwinism relate to imperialism? Natural selection applied to human society, People would take over areas and push their countries into the land
Why was the Ethiopian resistance to imperialism successful? Menelik II made alliances with two European countries and made them fight against each other
What is the message in Rudyard Kipling’s White Man’s Burden? White people have a duty to civilize, christianize/ Europeans need to help everyone else
Describe the different methods of management: direct control and indirect control: (colonies vs. protectorates) Indirect- Runs own affairs, but is controlled by another nation(protectorates) Direct- Area ruled by a foreign country (colonies)
What is paternalism? How does it relate to imperialism? Governing in a parental way by providing needs, but not rights. Countries want to take new land, yet they don’t want to have to deal with setting up a whole new system of government and don’t want to focus on it.
Why is India called the “Jewel in the crown”? It had natural resources Britain needed for manufacturing their goods
What happened as a result of the Sepoy rebellion? Britain takes direct command of India
What is the British East India Company, and what did they do? Chartered trade company who controlled India, they ruled india until 1850’s
What were the effects of imperialism? Expansion of countries and cultures throughout non-european countries, caused natives to be upset
Who fought in the Boer War? What was the result? Boers and British, Boer Republics united in Union of South Africa
Why were the Balkans referred to as the powder keg of Europe? This area had many conflicts that it was only a matter of time before a spark caused the region to take action
What are the MAIN causes of World War I, and what is the definition of each? Causes: Militarism- Glorifying war and preparing for it Alliances- Creating bonds between countries to try and keep peace or to gain more power Imperialism- Sizer of a country by a stronger force Nationalism- Deep feeling of attachment to one’s nation
Which countries made up the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente, and why were these alliances formed? TA- Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. Seeks to isolate France TE- Britain, France, and Russia. Germany’s alliance with Russia falls, and Britain worries that Germany is getting too powerful
What was the “spark” in Sarajevo that set World War I into motion? The assassination of Franz Ferdinand
Who was a part of the central powers? (list all) Germany Austria-Hungary Other nations
Who was a part of the allied powers? (list all) Britain France Russia Other nations
What is trench warfare, and why was it used? Fighting from trenches dug into the battlefield, safer way to fight/ gave some shelter
What is no man’s land? Area between 2 opposing sides trenches
What was the Schlieffen Plan? A battle strategy where Germany would attack France from the west, then rush and attack Russia in the East.
What is total war? Give 2 examples of total war during WWI. Where country’s commit full force in the war providing all resources, Woman’s working in factories, people rationing food, all money going to the war
Why did the United States get involved in World War I? (2 biggest reasons) 1-Germany’s Actions 2-Policies of unrestricted submarine warfare
What is unrestricted submarine warfare? What country used this? Sinking any ship without warning, Germany
What happened as a result of the Treaty of Versailles? Forced Germany to take full responsibility of the war, and were left very weak
Who was forced to accept responsibility of WWI based on the Treaty of Versailles? Why is this important? Germany, it left them weak and no one wanted to support them.
Why was the Weimar Republic a weak government? Inflation, large number of political parties, and no strong democratic tradition
What was the Great Depression? What were some of the effects of the Great Depression? When the stock market crashed on Oct. 29, 1929, Unemployment, bank closures, and business failures
What effect did the Great Depression in the United States have on Germany? The US gave money to Germany and when the Great Depression hit the US wanted their money back
How did totalitarian leaders like Hitler and Mussolini end up gaining power in their nations? Their countries wanted a stable leader since both of their governments were failing
What is fascism? What are some characteristics of fascism? A new militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader. -a one-party system -a disregard for individual rights. -strong nationalist feelings. -believed each class had a function
What is communism? What are some characteristics of communism? A political theory advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned, all goods and services are shared equally. --a one-party system -a disregard for individual rights. -strong nationalist feelings.
Define lebensraum. What were Hitler’s goals regarding lebensraum? Living Space, Hitler wanted more space for his plan to grow the country
What is Mein Kampf? What were some main ideas in it? Hitler’s book, His ideas of the perfect race
Which countries joined the Axis Power? Italy, Japan, Germany
Why did Japan invade Manchuria? What was the significance of this? They lacked important resources to support their economy, it was the first direct challenge
What is the Third Reich? Who led it? German Empire, Adolf Hitler
What happened at the Munich Conference? Meeting with Germany, France, Italy, and Britain ,Britain and France chose to appease Hitler
What is appeasement? A policy of giving into an aggressor in order to keep peace
What is the non-aggression pact? (make sure to include the countries involved) An agreement between Germany and Russia not to attack each other
What are two things that are significant about the German invasion of Poland? Britain and France declare war on Germany Hitler uses Blitzkrieg
Describe: “blitzkrieg” How effective was it? Lightning war, Planes infantry used to surprise enemies and conquer quickly, very effective
What was the “miracle at Dunkirk?” British navy took civilians across channel to rescue soldiers
What were some factors that led the the fall of France? Fall of dunkirk, No troops there, and the takeover of Paris
What were the 2 main ideas of the Atlantic Charter? What was significant about it? Supports free trade, and right to form own government
List 3 motives Japan had for wanting to build an empire: Land, Resources, Economy
Who had control of many of the islands Japan took over? The US and European countries
What is the significance of December 7, 1941? Japan bombed Pearl Harbor
Define genocide: A systematic killing of certain people
What was the Final Solution? How is it related to the Holocaust? Hitler’s plan to kill as many Jews as possible, It was the most major event during the Holocaust
Who were members of the Axis powers? Germany, Italy, Japan, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, and Bulgaria
Who were members of the Allied powers? Great Britain, France, US, Soviet Union and China
What was significant about the Allied invasion of France on D-Day? They used deception to trick Germany
How did civilians help out the war effort? Made supplies for the war and continued life back home
Who are kamikazes? What do they show about the Japanese culture during this time period? Suicide pilots, they were willing to die for their country
Why did Truman agree to use the atomic bomb? Advisors warned him that invasion will cost many lives
List some reasons why there were so many displaced people after the war: Holocaust, Invasion of countries, many people moved to safety
What were the Nuremberg Trials? Trials of 22 Nazi leaders for war crimes
Who were the 3 main leaders who met at Yalta and what country were they from? Britain (Churchill), US ( Truman), Soviet (Stalin)
What was the purpose of the Yalta Conference? What was decided at Yalta? To decide what would happen to Germany, Who Germany’s government would be
What was the United Nations? Why was it created? A league of nations made to protect members against aggression from other countries
Define “partition” Splitting India into 2
What are three factors that influenced independence movements of colonial countries? Colonies cost a lot, Colonist joined with Europeans to fight against Germans, and Democratic Values
Describe the events that led to the transition from East Pakistan to an independent Bangladesh. West Pakistan provided no aid to East Pakistan after a natural disaster devastated the region. Civil war between East and West Pakistan
Describe the effects of the Six-Day War: Israel defeats Arab States. Israel gains Jerusalem, the Sinai Peninsula, The Golan Heights, and the West banks. A buffer zone against Arab attacks
Why did the original plan to partition Palestine in the late 1940’s fail? The Palestinians rejected the Partition, saying the UN did not have the right to partition the country without consulting the majority of the people
Created by: allisonhunt