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World History

Final Exam Review

Adam Smith Wrote Wealth of Nations; Believed in capitalism / free enterprise
Galileo Galilei scientist; discovered the Law of the Pendulum; found that a falling object accelerates at a fixed and predictable rate
Thomas Hobbies philosopher ; Social contract – best government was one that had absolute power and could impose order and demand obedience
Nicholas Copernicus scientist; heliocentric theory (earth and planets revolve around the sun)
Charles de Montesquieu philosopher; separation of powers (legislative, judicial, executive); each branch of government should serve as a check on the other two (checks and balances)
William Blackstone Commentaries; Members of the Constitutional Congress referred to his writings; Chief Justice John Marshall cited his ideas in Marbury vs. Madison (1803)
Robespierre took power in France during the French Revolution; period of rule known as the Reign of Terror
Napoleon took power in France at the end of the French Revolution; he created a French Empire (wanted to control all of Europe)
King Louis XIV of France Absolute Monarch in France; his excessive spending caused France a great amount of debt and angered French citizens; agreed to a new constitution that limited the monarchy – but failed to work with the National Assembly.
Simon Bolivar led military forces in Latin America that defeated Spain and served as a political leader. He resorted to a dictatorship to maintain order.
Jose de san San Martin leader in the Latin America struggle for independence
Toussaint l Overture leader in the Latin America struggle for independence
Louis Pasteur developed the germ theory of disease; learned that heat killed bacteria (pasteurization)
James Watt developed a way to make the steam engine work faster and more efficiently while burning less fuel; his worked allowed for the steam engine to power factory machinery
Karl Marx believed the capitalist system (which produced the Industrial Revolution) would eventually destroy itself and a classless society (communism) would result; Communist Manifesto; communism
Winston Churchill prime minister of Great Britain during World War II; led the British war effort against Hitler; worked closely with President Roosevelt
Adolf Hitler totalitarian leader of Germany during World War II; belief in anti-Semitism became the basic ideology of the Nazi party in Germany; responsible for the Holocaust
Benito Mussolini totalitarian leader of Italy during WW II; founded the Fascist Party in Italy
Hideki Tojo totalitarian leader in Japan during WWII; part of the axis
Joseph Stalin totalitarian leader of the Soviet Union during WWII; worked with Churchill (Great Britain) and Roosevelt (US) to defeat the Germans; however did not get along with Churchill and Roosevelt
Mao Zedong leader of the communists during the Chinese civil war; became the communist leader in China; he eliminated the wealthy landowners in China; responsible for the Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution
Mikhail Gorbachev leader of the Soviet Union; introduced reforms that moved the Soviet Union away from a command economy and lifted the Iron Curtain in Eastern Europe
Mohandas Gandhi leader who achieved Indian independence through non-violent, passive resistance to the British
Nelson Mandela South Africa – imprisoned for speaking out against apartheid; became South Africa’s first black president.
Absolute Monarchy ruler who holds all the power
Democratic rule by the people, either directly or through elected representatives
Direct democracy government in which the people rule directly
Limited democracy the power of government is limited not absolute
theocracy government controlled by religious leaders
Republic form of government in which power is in the hands of representatives and leaders are elected by the people
Fascism extreme form of nationalism; blind loyalty to the leader who uses violence and terror; censorship and government control of the news
Totalitarian a form of government in which the leader has total control over every aspect of public and private life
Commercial Revolution expansion of trade and business that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries; believed that controlling trade was a key to increasing a country’s wealth and power.
Joint-stock companies Privately owned companies that sold stock to raise money (during the Commercial Revolution)
Mercantilism economic policy in which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more products than they bought
First Estate clergy of the Roman Catholic church (owned 10% of the land in France); paid very little taxes
Second Estate rich nobles, much of whose wealth was in land, 2% of the population of France (owned 20% of the land); paid no taxes
Third Estate 98% of the people in France; made up of three groups (bourgeoisie, workers, peasants) who differed greatly in their economic conditions; paid most of the taxes; representatives formed the National Assembly
Magna Carta document guaranteeing basic political rights in England, it limited the power of the English Monarchs; rulers were responsible to the people they governed
English Civil War conflict in which supporters of Parliament battled supporters of England’s monarchy; ended with limits put on the power of the English Monarchs
English Bill of Right limited the power of the English monarchs; rulers were responsible to the people they governed
Petition of Right Parliament claimed that the king should not introduce new taxes in any form without approval
Geocentric Theory belief that the earth was located at the center of the universe
Enlightenment 17th century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason, natural laws and scientific method to all aspects of society
Invention of the steam engine contributed most directly to the Industrial Revolution as it was used to power the factories
Effect of Napoleonic War Spanish colonies began demanding independence in Latin America; spread of enlightenment ideas throughout Europe; the termination of any remaining feudalism in Europe.
Scientific Revolution Renaissance beliefs led to technological inventions which led to the Scientific Revolution; led to the application of reason and experimentation to political thinking
American Revolution overthrow of foreign power (British)
French Revolution French overthrow of their own government (absolute monarchs)
Glorious Revolution bloodless overthrow of the English King James and his replacement by William and Mary
Industrial Revolution the shift, beginning in England during the 18th century, from making goods by hand to making them by machine – led to a vast increase in the production of manufactured goods; led by the invention of the steam engine;
Factory System during the Industrial Revolution – building of factories to house the large machines used to make goods quickly and efficiently
European Imperialism motives, treatment of natives; motive - the need to develop new markets for European manufactured goods; usually treated the natives badly; European countries exploited colonial people while pretending to help them.
Sepoy Rebellion in India 1857 rebellion of Hindu and Muslim soldiers against the British in India
Boxer Rebellion in China 1900 Rebellion in China, aimed at ending foreign influence in China
World War 1- how different from earlier wars, causes, new technologies how different from earlier wars causes - (MAIN causes of WWI) Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism; assassination of the heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire new technologies – trench warfare, chemical warfare, airplanes,
Trench Warfare a form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield (WWI)
American genocide 1890s – Turkish troops killed tens of thousands of Armenians who were demanding their freedom; during WWI the Turkish gov’t deported nearly 2 million Armenians – 600,000 died of starvation or were killed by Turkish soldiers
Alliance system one of the major causes of WWI because it escalated a local crisis (in the Balkans) into a war involving all of the great powers of Europe
Triple Alliance WWI – a military alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
Triple Entente WWI – a military alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia
Russian Revolution of 1917 marked the end of the czars and beginning of communism in Russia. Peasants wanted land (“Peace, Bread, Land”)
Balkan state boundaries related to WWI the changing and merging of countries after WWI as a result of post war treaties.
Militarism policy of glorifying power and keeping an army prepared for war (MAIN)
Genocide- Holocaust and Rwanda killing of a specific group of people – Holocaust and Rwanda Holocaust – during WW2 -Millions of European Jews, including children, were murdered by Hitler and the Nazis in Germany
Bombing of Hiroshima WWII - US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, about 70,000 people were killed instantly in the attack from radiation
Pearl Harbor WWII – US cut off sales of iron and oil with the Japanese; Dec. 7. 1941 – Japanese attacked US Naval base at Pearl Harbor, crippling the US Navy. As a result, US declared war on the Japanese
Nuremburg Trials After WWII, Nazi leaders were tried for war crimes
Great Depression After WWI (1929) severe economic slump that followed the collapse of the US stock market; affected all the major industrialized countries of the West
John Locke philosopher; people are born free and equal with unalienable (natural) rights (life, liberty, property)
Jean Jacques Rousseau philosopher; individual freedom; believed that the only good government was one that was freely formed by the people and guided by the “general will” of society (direct democracy)
Limited monarchy a monarchy in which the ruler’s power is limited by law (constitutional monarchy
Heliocentric model sun- centered – earth and planets orbited around the sun (challenged geocentric theory)
Textile industry where the Industrial Revolution began; invention of the new spinning and weaving machinery increased the number of workers in textile industry in Europe because the demand for goods increased as goods became cheaper to produce
WWII 1942-1945; Axis (Germany, Japan, Italy) vs Allies (Great Britain, France, Russia, and later in the war – US) Cause – unresolved issues of WWI
Rwanda After the Hutus came to power in Rwanda, the Hutus organized the murder of about 1 million Tutsis
Glasnost Soviet policy of openness to the free flow of ideas and information introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization – initially formed to defend Western Europe from Soviet aggression
Perestroika restructuring of the Soviet economy to permit more local decision-making, begun by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985
The Cuban Missile Crisis during the Cold War Soviet Union– built missile sites in Cuba; US declared that the missiles so close to the US were a threat and demanded the Soviet Union remove them. US troops were assembled in Florida, ready to invade Cuba.
Taliban Islamic fundamentalist group formerly in power in Afghanistan
Osama bin Laden leader of al-Qaeda and Taliban
War on Terror US vs. Taliban and al-Qaeda
Globalization effects - promotes the exchange of goods and services between nations
New technology such as fax machines, teleconferences, and “smart phones” have led to a more interdependent (connected) global society
Outsourcing a result of free trade agreements between the U.S. and developing countries
GPS has made navigation easier
Human Rights freedoms/ liberties; freedom of speech, media, religion; rights of the accused; fair and unbiased trials; freedom to protest; freedom to choose the type of government. Still happening in China
Created by: spotsville2