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Ch 6 Reference

Anatomical Position and Terms of Reference

Position/Term of ReferenceMeaning
coronal or frontal plane body plane; vertical division of body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions
sagittal plane body plane; vertical division of body into right and left portions
transverse plane body plane; horizontal division of body into upper and lower portions
anterior (A) (ventral) directional term; front of the body
posterior (P) (dorsal) directional term; back of the body
anterior-posterior (AP) directional term; from front to back; commonly associated with the direction of an x-ray beam
posterior-anterior (PA) from back to front; commonly associated with the direction of an x-ray beam
superior (cephalic) directional term; situated above another structure, toward the head
inferior (caudal) directional term; situated below another structure, away from the head
proximal directional term; toward the beginning or origin of a structure
distal directional term; away from the beginning or origin of a structure
medial directional term; toward the middle (midline)
lateral directional term; toward the side
axis directional term; line that runs through the center of the body or a body part
erect body position; normal standing position
lateral decubitus body position; to lie down; lying on the side
prone body position; lying face down and flat
recumbent body position; lying down
supine body position; horizontal recumbent; lying flat on the back - "on the spine"
flexion body movement; bending at the joint so that the angle between the bones is decreased
extension body movement; straightening at the joint so that the angle between the bones is increased
abduction body movement; movement away from the body
adduction body movement; movement toward the body
rotation body movement; circular movement around an axis
eversion body movement; turning outward
inversion body movement; turning inward
supination body movement; turning upward or forwardof the palmar surface (palm of the hand) or plantar surface (sole of the foot)
pronation body movement; turning downward or backward of the palmar surface (palm of the hand) or plantar surface (sole of the foot)
dorsiflexion body movement; bending of the foot or the toes upward
plantar flexion body movement; bending of the sole of the foot by curling the toes toward the ground
range of motion (ROM) body movement; total amount of motion in a joint, described by the terms related to body movement (e.g., the elbow flexes to 140 degrees)
>>goniometer instrument used to measure joint angles (gonio=angle); to measure ROM
Created by: mascat