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Renal 2

QuestionAnswer
How does urea reabsorption work? Urea drags water from CD into interstitium. Low water intake leads to ADH increasing activity of apical UT transporters
Where does urea reabsorption occur? Collecting duct
Where does bicarbonate reabsorption occur? 85%-90% reabsorbed in the PCT 0-5% in the DCT
How does bicarbonate reabsorption in the PCT work? Hydrogen leaves the cell via H+ ATPase, and the Na/H+ antiporter Bicarbonate crosses the basolateral side via Na/HCO3- symporter
How does bicarbonate reabsorption in the DCT work? H+ secretion by the intercalated cell H+ ATPase HCO3- crosses basolateral membrane via HCO3-/Cl- exchanger
Explain ammonia formation (NH3) and its role is acid balance PCT synthesizes NH3 from glutamine. It accepts H+ to form ammonium NH4+ in the tubular fluid. Renal tubules are impermeable to ammonium, so it is excreted
What is GFR? Tells you how well your kidneys are filtering
How is GFR measured? GFR = UV/P
Why is inulin used in GFR measurement? it is not reabsorbed by kidneys or secreted back by peritubular capillaries
What is involved in the juxtaglomerular apparatus? Macula densa of DCT, Juxtaglomerular cells, and Extraglomerular mesangial cells
Explain the tubuloglomerular autoregulation mechanism Macula densa cells sense the levels of Na in the fluid. It releases prostaglandin which stimulates the hormonal system, and NO, that vasodilates the afferent arteriole
Explain how the hormonal regulation works Granular cells are stimulated by prostaglandins and activation of beta 1 receptors. This triggers renin release that produces angiotensin 2
What does angiotensin 2 do? Vasoconstrict efferent, release aldosterone, ADH, increases catecholamine release
How does the myogenic regulation work? Blood pressure is monitored. With a drop of BP, calcium channels close, leading to a vasodilation of the afferent.
How does macula densa cell control vasodila/constriction? Ca2+
Describe the neural mechanism for autoregulation BP is monitored by baroreceptors that activates the Sympathetic nervous system
Describe the RAAS system
What does aldosterone do? Acts on principle cells of DCT and CD by upregulating basolateral NaK ATPase. Upregulates ENaCs in CD and colon Stimulate secretion of H+ by H+ ATPase in intercalated cells of cortical CD
What does ADH do? Increase transcription of AQP2 by cAMP activation of protein kinase A. Increase Na uptake. Increase Urea uptake in CD by regulating expression of UT. V1 receptor in smooth muscle (vascular) vasoconstriction
What epithelial cell type can be found in the PCT? Squamous cuboidal epithelium
What epithelial cell type can be found in the Ascending loop? Simple cuboidal epithelium
What do principle cells do? Secrete K+ and absorb Na+
Plasma concentration of K+ triggers what hormone? Aldosterone
What has no effect on GFR? ADH
Where is the vasa recta found? Juxtamedullary nephrons
What allows urea into the LOH? UT-B
Aldosterone targets which cells? Principle cells in renal CD epithelium
What does ANP do? It dilates the afferent and constricts the efferent.Increases blood flow through the vasa recta, which will wash the solutes out of the medullary interstitium, leads to less reabsorption of tubular fluid and increased excretion. Inhibits renin secretion,
ANP is stimulated by? Increased cardiac distention, Sympathetic activity, Angiotensin 2 and exercise
ANP is produced by? Cardiac myocytes
Created by: lijingsaw