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Renal 1

QuestionAnswer
The filter membrane is made up of three layers: Podocytes, Basement membrane, and Capillary endothelial cells
The basement membrane has a further 3 layers: Lamina rara interna, Lamina densa, and Lamina rara externa
What is reabsorbed at the: PCT? Glucose, amino acids, water, Sodium, Chloride, Bicabonate
What is reabsorbed at the: LOH? Water, Sodium, Chloride, Potassium
What is reabsorbed at the: DCT? Bicarbonate, Calcium, Bicarbonate
What is reabsorbed at the: CD? Water
What channels act on the: PCT? Glucose/Na symporter, NaK ATPase
What channels act on the: LOH? Na/K/Cl co-transporter, NaK ATPase
What is the difference between the thick and thin ascending limbs? Thick: Active, Thin: Passive
What channels act on the: DCT? NaK ATPase, porous to Ca, Ca/Na antiporter, NaCl co-transporter
What channels act on the: CD? AQP2, NaK ATPase
Name the two cells of the CD and what they do Alpha intercalated cells: Secrete H+ Beta intercalated cells: Secrete HCO3-
What is secondary active transport? The use of the electro-chem gradient from the NaK ATPase
What does Vitamin D do? Acts on PCT to absorb Ca2+
What does PTH do? Binds to G protein, phosphorylation of Ca2+ channels, Increase uptake of Ca2+ in DCT, prevent reabsorption of phosphate in PCT
How does the counter current multiplier work? Descending limb only permeable to water, while ascending loop actively pumps out sodium and chloride, making the interstitial fluid have a lower osmotic gradient that inside the tubule, thus water at the descending limb diffuses out easier
What is the counter current exchanger? The vasa recta maintains medullary conc. gradient by absorbing solute in the ascending limb and water in the descending limb. It goes the opposite way of the fluid in the tubule
Where does the kidneys arise from? Intermediate mesoderm
Name the 3 different stages of kidney development Pronephros, Mesonephros, and Metanephros
Created by: lijingsaw