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Renal Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
Where does the kidneys lie, and at what vertebral level? T12-L3 retroperitoneal
The right kidney is found anterior to rib ? while the left kidney is found anterior to the ribs ?? 12, 11 & 12
Each kidney is surrounded by: (deep to superficial) Perinephric fat, Renal fascia, Paranephric fat
Posterior relations of the kidneys are.. Psoas major, quadratus lumborum, and transverse abdominis
Anterior relations of the kidneys are.. Ascending colon, Hepatic flexure, and duodenum (right) Spleen, stomach, splenic flexure and duodenum (left)
Renal arteries arise at ? T12-L1, inferior to the SMA
Left renal vein receives tributaries from the adrenal and gonadal veins
Where does the left renal vein pass on its way back to the IVC Anterior to the aorta immediately below origin of superior mesenteric artery
What does a hilum consist of? Renal artery, Renal vein, and Ureter
How does urine get excreted? Collecting ducts --> Minor calyx --> Major calyx --> Renal pelvis --> Ureter
Name the narrowings of the ureter Pelviuretic junction, Crossing pelvic rim, Uretero-vesical junction
Where does the ureters descend? On the surface of the psoas major approx. in line with tips of transverse process of lumbar vertebrae
Crossing the pelvic rim, the ureters pass over..? Passes anterior sacroiliac joint and the bifurcation of the common iliac artery
Upper 1/3 of the ureters is supplied by? Renal arteries
Middle 1/3 of the ureters is supplied by? Branches of the abdominal aorta, gonadal arteries or the common iliac arteries
Lower 1/3 of the ureters is supplied by? Branches from the internal iliac
Urogenital system develops from? Intermediate mesoderm
Name the layers of the ureters (deep to superficial) Transitional epithelia, Lamina propria, Longitudinal layer, Circular layer, Adventitia
Reflex response to flow of urine in urethra is? The internal sphincter relaxation
Female urethra is supported by? A pubovesical ligament
The male urethra is made of 4 layers: Preprostatic, Prostatic, Membranous, Spongy
What is the sympathetic nerve supply of the bladder? Stimulation of which, does what? T12-L2, stimulation increases internal urethral sphincter tone
What innervates the detrusor? S2,3,4
What is the trigone? A triangle formed by the internal urethral orifice and the openings of the ureters
Male urethra is supported by ? Puboprostatic ligament
Name the 4 distinct parts of the male urethra. Preprostatic urethra, Prostatic urethra, Membranous urethra, Spongy urethra
Name the main muscles of the pelvic floor Two levator ani muscles and the coccygeus muscle
What is the pudendal nerve? S2-S4
The pudendal nerve is associated with? The ischial spine with the sacrospinous ligament attached to it
How does the pudendal nerve leave the pelvic cavity? Through the greater sciatic foramen, and enters the perineum inferior to the pelvic floor by passing round the ischial spine and through the lesser sciatic foramen.
Created by: lijingsaw