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Chapter 28 WWII

Appeasement British policy to overlook Hitler's small crimes; allowing him to take smaller territories, in an effort to maintain peace.
Winston Churchill England. Part of the British Parliament, spoke out against Chamberlain's plan. He was a leader in WII.
Axis Power A military alliance that involved Germany, Italy, and Japan.
Nonaggression Pact Designed to allow further German aggression in Europe. An agreement that the Nazi's and the Soviet Union made to prevent each other from attacking one another.
Blitzkrieg "Lightning War," Focused on speed and close coordination between planes in the air and fast-moving forces on the ground. Began with air attacks that damaged defenses and caused panic in civilians. Tanks and mobile artillery attacked the countryside.
Allies Originally, Britain and France. Americans joined the Allies after the invasion of Pearl Harbor.
Battle of Britain August - October 1940. German air raids on British targets. Goal: Destroy British Royal Air Force. Failed due to new technology: radar --> more effective air defense.
Hideki Tojo Japan. General. Developed plan to attack Pearl Harbor.
isolationism The desire to avoid involvement in the affairs of other nations; US after WWI.
Erwin Rommel German. General. Led the Afrika Korps, Italian and German combined force in Africa. Nicknamed "The Desert Fox" for skillfully pusing the British out of Libya and back to Egypt.
Battle of El alamein British victory over Afrika Korps in Egypt. British troops used information from secret German codes, and taking advantage of German supply problems, General Montgomery had a major victory.
Dwight D.Eisenhower American. General. Led combined American/British force. Landed in North Africa in 1942. Used a pincher formation to further disrupt German supply lines --> Rommel's surrender in May 1943
Siege of Leningrad German siege of Leningrad during winter 1941-1942 --> Soviet civilians dying at a rate of 3-4K/day.
Battle of Stalingrad Stalingrad = large industrial/military city. Hitler ordered a mixed army (Germany, Italy, Romania, and Hungary) to take the city. Stalin wanted to hold the city at all costs. Brutal battle, over 1 mil Soviet soldiers died.
Douglass MacArthur American. General. Lead US Army against the Japanese in the Philippines --> Bataan Death March.
Bataan death March When the Japanese forced 70,000 US and Filipino prisoners to march up the Bataan Peninsula to a prison camp. Prisoners faced tropical heat, lack of food and water, and brutal violence from the Japanese.
Battle of Midway Americans and Japanese fought in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Americans won due to the discovery of Japanese radio code. American defense lead by Chester Nimitz. The Americans destroyed 4 Japanese aircraft carriers and only lost 1 American ship.
Battle of Guadalcanal Allied invasion of island near Australia against Japan in pursuit of the island hopping strategy. Ended badly. Japanese victory in 1943.
kamikazes Japanese pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and scarified themselves to crash into Allied ships; suicide bombers who considered their death a noble sacrifice for their country.
Deported To be forced to leave a country.
Final Solution The deliberate mass execution of Jews --> confinement in ghettos, sent to labor camps, mass slaughter using mobile killing units, death camps = Holocaust.
Ghetto A confined area within a city, used in the Holocaust to prevent Jews from leaving.
Concentration camps A camp meant to hold the people Hitler called "the enemies of the state." Here, Jews and other prisoners were forced to work as slave laborers. Many died, all faced severe hunger, and some were used in cruel medical experiments.
Holocaust The mass murder of Jews. 6 million Jews were killed in the Holocaust.
D-Day June 6, 1944. Lead by Generals Marshall and Eisenhower. Allied forces invaded France on the beaches of Normandy against German forces. A victory for the Allies.
V-E Day May 7, 1945. Victory in Europe Day. Germany surrendered ending the war in Europe.
Battle of Iwo Jima Japanese island. 7K Americans died capturing the island. Over 19K Japanese died defending the island.
Battle of Okinawa Americans invaded Okinawa. 12K Americans were killed. The Japanese lost. 100K defenders of Japan were killed.
Harry S Truman President of the U.S. after Franklin Roosevelt died. Made the decision to use atomic weapons against the Japanese, hoped use of the weapon would lead to Japanese surrender. Bombed Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. Bombed Nagasaki on August 9, 1945.
Hirohito Japanese emperor during WWII.
V-J Day August 15, 1945. Victory in Japan Day, when Emperor Hirohito surrendered ending WWII.
Yalta Conference Goal: To reach agreement on what to do with post-war Europe. Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill agreed on dealing with Germany. Stalin kept property that used to belong to Poland.
United Nation Designed to encourage national cooperation and prevent war.
Potsdam Conference July 1945. Growing problems between Soviet Union and other Allies, had problems reaching agreements.
Created by: bprimo