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Chapter 29 Vocab

Europe and North America

Nuremberg trials (1945-1949) trials in which an allied military tribunal tried several dozen top Nazi and military officials; many were executed for war crimes
Cold War an era of high tension and bitter rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union in the decades following World War II
iron curtain term coined by Winston Churchill in 1946 to describe an imaginary line dividing Communist countries in the Soviet bloc from countries in Western Europe during the cold war
Truman Doctrine (1947) U.S. president Truman's pledge to provide economic and military aid to countries threatened by communism
Marshall Plan (1947) plan for the economic reconstruction of Europe after World War II
Containment the United States policy adopted in the 1940s to stop the spread of communism by providing economic and military aid to countries opposing the Soviets
Berlin airlift (1948-1949) a program in which the United States and Britain shipped supplies by air to West Berlin during the Soviet Blockade of all routes to the city
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization; a defensive military alliance of twelve Western nations formed in 1949
Warsaw Pact a military alliance of the soviet-dominated countries of Eastern Europe established in 1955
hydrogen bomb a nuclear weapon that gets its power from the fusing together of hydrogen atoms
deterrence the development of or maintenance of military power to deter, or prevent, an attack
arms race competition between nations the gain an advantage in weapons
Sputnik (1957) the first artificial satellite; launched by the Soviet Union
Bay of Pigs invasion (1961) the failed attempt of Cuban exiles backed by the U.S. to overthrow the Cuban socialist government of Fidel Castro
Cuban missile crisis (1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba
nonaligned nations nations who refused to ally with either side in the Cold War between the U.S. and the Soviet Union
detente efforts taken by U.S. president Nixon in the late 1960's and early 1970's to lower cold war tensions
Martin Luther King Jr. American civil rights leader; he was a celebrated and charismatic advocate of civil rights for African Americans in the 1950's and 1960's. he was assassinated in 1968.
counterculture a rebellion of teens and young adults against mainstream American culture in the 1960's
Solidarity an independent labor union founded in Soviet controlled Poland in 1980
Mikhail Gorbachev Russian politician; he was the last president of the Soviet Union before the country's collapse in 1991
glasnost "openness"; refers to a new era of media freedom in the Soviet Union under Mikhail Gorbachev in the 1980's
perestroika "restructuring"; restructuring of the corrupt government bureaucracy in the Soviet Union begun by Mikhail Gorbachev
Velvet Revolution (1989) a quick and peaceful revolution that swept the communist from power in Czechoslovakia
Boris Yeltsin Russian politician and president of Russia in the 1990s; he was the first popularly elected leader of the country
ethnic cleansing the elimination of an ethnic group from society through killing or forced migration
Internet an electronic system that allows the linking of millions of individual computers around the world
Saddam Hussein President of Iraq from 1979 to 2003; he established a brutal dictatorship, suppressed all dissent, and led Iraq into wars with Iran and Kuwait. He was removed from power in 2003 by U.S. led forces
Persian Gulf War war in which U.S. led forces liberated Kuwait from Iraq
al Qaeda "the base"; Islamist terrorist organization responsible for the September 11th attacks
Osama Bin Laden Founder of al Qaeda, the terrorist network responsible for the attacks of September 11th, 2001, and other attacks
Taliban Islamist group that took control over much of Afghanistan in the late 1990's; were ousted by the United States invasion of 2001
Created by: austinvarner