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Cardio 2

Hb's O2 binding affinity is inversely related to both acidity and to the conc. of CO2 Bohr's effect
Bohr's effect: Increase in CO2? Decrease pH, Hb releases O2
Bohr's effect: Decrease in CO2? Increase pH, Hb pick up more O2
Exchange of HCO3- & Cl- to maintain osmotic balance Cl-/Hamburg shift
Haldane effect Binding of O2 to Hb promotes release of CO2 enhancing CO2 elimination
Starling's law Ability to change its force of contraction
Bainbridge reflex Increase heart rate following RA stretch
What is EF? Measurement of % of blood leaving heart from both sides
Stroke volume Vol. of blood pumped from LV
After load Pressure in wall of LV during ejection
Diastolic blood pressure Pressure on the walls of arteries in body between heart beats
Systolic blood pressure Max. arterial pressure during contraction of LV
When is systolic blood pressure measured? After aortic valve closes
What causes the lubb dubb sound? Lubb is caused by AV valves closing, Dubb is caused by Aortic and pulmonary valve closing
What happens during exercise? Accumulation of adenosine = control of increased muscle blood supply Increased CO in anticipation = activation of brainstem control centres via cortical outflow Carotid baroreceptors = prevent excessive rise of BP
Describe the Calcium Induced Calcium Release T- tubules bring L type Ca channels close to ryanodine receptors. Ryanodine receptors change their conformation and release more Ca. Ca returns to SR via SERCA calcium channels after contraction
What removes Ca from cardiac myocytes? Na/Ca exchanger
Why is AVN slower than SAN? Less HCN channels SAN easier to excite due to higher resting TMP
Fossa ovalis is found on..? Interatrial septum
SAN and AVN innervated by? Cardiac plexus
Name the two branches of the umbillical vein and where they go Ductus venosus --> IVC Sinusoids --> Hepatic veins --> IVC
Where does the heart arise from? Splanchnic mesoderm
What does hyperkaelemia do? Decrease myocardial excitability by making resting TMP more -ve
What does hypokaelemia do? Increase myocardial excitability
Where is the pulmonary trunk located? T5-6, opposite left sternum divides
Wheres the auscultation point for the aortic valve? 2nd right intercostal
Where is the apex/mitral valve auscultation point? 5th left mid-clavicular
Where is the pulmonary valve auscultatation point? 2nd left intercostal
Where is the tricuspid valve auscultation point? 4th left mid-clavicular
Created by: lijingsaw