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HTI Final Review

HTI Final Study Guide Review

QuestionAnswer
Main reasons for Hemoconcentration Leaving the tourniquet on for too long, tying too tightly, excessive pumping of the fist
Main reasons for Hemolysis Vigorous shaking of the specimen, Using a needle with a small gauge
Main reasons for Compartment Syndrome Caused by excessive bleeding into the tissues surrounding the venipuncture site
Dermal Puncture Depth- Finger 3.0 mm
Dermal Puncture Depth- Heel Stick 2.0 mm
Dermal Puntcure Depth- Heel Stick (Infants or Neonates) .65-.85 mm
Dermal Puncture Depth- Bleeding Time Test 1.0 mm
Main heel stick sites in infants Medial and Lateral Borders of the Plantar Surface
Reason for not sticking in the center of plantar surface/Arch May hit calcaneous, May hit nerve tissue in arch of foot
Define- Collateral Circulation Receiving blood from more than one artery
Steps for Modified Allen Test Extend wrist over towel, Make a fist, Locate pulses in radial and ulnar arteries, Pump fist, Release ulnar artery, Wait 5-10 sec for color
If no color appears within 5-10 seconds after Mod. Allen Test Inadequate circulation to the artery and site should not be used
If color appears within 5-10 seconds after Mod. Allen Test Adequate circulation and you may proceed with Radial Puncture
The Blood Bank uses what gauge of needle? 16-18 gauge
Routine venipuncture uses what gauge of needle? 22 gauge, 1 inch long
What is the smallest gauge of needle used for specimen collection? 23 gauge
A Timed Specimen is used for Determining an average value, Medication Levels, Changes in condition, Normal Diurnal Variation in blood levels, Cardiac Enzymes
Define- Basal State The body's state after 8-12 hours of fasting and abstaining from exercise
Define- Fasting Specimen 12 hours without the ingestion of foods, liquids containing caffeine, Nicotine
2 Hour Postprandial Test is used for Testing for Diabetes Mellitus
How does the 2 hour Postprandial Test work? Compares the fasting glucose level with the level 2 hours after consuming glucose
What is the LTT? Lactose Tolerance Test/Presence of lactase in the gut
What hormone's levels are twice as high in the morning? Cortisol
Define- Through Level Lowest serum level/Occurs immediately before the next dose of medication is administered
Define- Peak Level Highest serum level/Occurs sometime after dose is given
Define- TDM Therapeutic Drug Monitoring/Measures levels of medication in the body
Define- STAT Short Turn Around Time/Specimen needed immediately, Takes priority over all other specimens
Define- Polymer/Thixotropic Gel? Inert substance with density between cells & serum or plasma
How does Polymer Gel work? Gel becomes liquid in the centrifuge, Moves between the lower cell layer and the upper serum/plasma level, Hardens once centrifuge stops
Define- RACE R-Rescue any patients, A-Alarm call 911, C-Confine close windows and doors, E-Extinguish
Define- PASS Pull the pin, Aim at the base of the fire, Squeeze the handle, Sweep
Excessive mixing of a sample causes what complication? Short clotting times
Define- Hematoma When blood oozes from vein into surrounding tissues
Main causes of a Hematoma Excessive probing, Failure to insert needle far enough, Needle going through wrong vein, Inadequate pressure at puncture site
If the needle bevel is stuck in the vein wall you should Slightly rotate the needle
If the needle has passed through both sides of the vein you should Slowly pull back on the needle
If the needle has not advanced far enough into the vein you should Slowly advance the needle
If the vein is missed completely you should Pull the needle out slightly, relocate the vein, redirect the needle
If the tube is too large for the vein you should Remove the tube, wait a few seconds, use a smaller tube
A tube with a vacuum that is too strong will Pull the vein on to the bevel of the needle and block blood flow
The normal color of Serum is Pale Yellow
Describe- Icteric Serum Darker Yellow/Caused by increased levels of bilirubin
Describe- Lipemic Serum/Turbid Cloudy/Ingestion of lipids
Describe- Hemolyzed Serum Pink/Caused by the breakage of RBCs
The O&P fecal test is used to Determine the presence of salmonella, giardia, other bacteria
Main area used for venipuncture Antecubital Fossa
What are the 3 veins in the antecubital fossa? The Cephalic (Thumb Side), Medial (Middle), Basilic (Thumb Side)
Why is the Basilic Vein a poor choice for venipuncture? Because it is near a nerve and an artery
What color tube are specimens for Cytogenetics collected in? Green
What angle is a butterfly needle inserted? 5 Degrees
What angle is used for normal venipuncture? Between 15-30 Degrees
Define- Petechiae Red spots around the tourniquet caused by a clotting disorder
What test is used to determine pregnancy? Hcg
What is the PT/INR Test used for? To monitor a patient's warfarin treatment
What is the PT Test used for? To diagnose bleeding or clotting issues
What is the International Normalized Ratio (INR) Test used for? To monitor a patient's treatment on anticogulents
What department do BMP and CMP Tests go to? Chemistry
Define- Culture & Sensitivity Detect and identify microorganisms and determine the most effective antibiotic treatment
What department handles C&S testing? Microbiology
What department handles CBC testing? Hematology
What tests are used for determining the occurrence of a heart attack? Creatine Kinase (CK), Creatine Kinase-MB (CK-MB), Troponin I
What department handles PT, PT/INR, aPTT Testing? Coagulation
2 reasons not to draw from an arm on the same side of a mastectomy Lymph node is removed/Lymph flow to arm will be negligible, Increases chance of Lymphedema
Define- Lymphedema The accumulation of lymphatic fluid causing swelling under the skin
Osteomyelitis is caused by Improper venipuncture technique causing the needle to strike the bone/Common in heel sticks
How are mistakes corrected on documentation? A single line through the error, Initial the line
What tube is used for testing lead concentration in blood? Tan
How much of plasma is water? 90%
How much of blood is made up of formed elements? 45%
Plasma is what % of blood? 55%
How is cystic fibrosis tested for? Sweat Electrolyte Test/Sweat Chloride Test
Define- Diurnal Variation Normal fluctuations in body chemistry related to hormone cycles and other patterns of change
Created by: jasoneldert