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HTI CH 6

HTI CH 6- Human Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
Define- Homeostasis The dynamic state we think of when referring to good health
Define- Cells Smallest living units in the body, like small factories
The Nucleus of the cell contains what? DNA
Define- Mitochondria Cell's power plants, Form ATP
Define- Cytoplasm All cellular material except the plasma membrane and nucleus
Define- Plasma Membrane Encloses the cell and tightly regulates the flow of materials in and out of the cell
4 Main Tissue Types Epithelial, Muscle, Nerve, Connective
Define- Epithelial Tissue Flat sheets found on surfaces where exchange with the environment take place/The lining of the gut, Skin
Define- Muscle Tissue Contractile/Can shorten in length, contain actin & myosin, 3 different forms
What are the 3 forms of Muscle Tissue? Skeletal (Striated Voluntary), Cardiac (Striated Involuntary), Smooth (Non-striated Involuntary)
Describe- Skeletal Muscle Most widespread, all muscles that move the skeleton, has a striped appearance
Describe- Cardiac Muscle Found in heart, no stimulation from nervous system needed but electrical stimulation is necessary
Describe- Smooth Muscle Lines blood and lymph vessels around the gut, lungs, & bladder/Regulate the passage of materials through the vessel
Describe- Nerve Tissue Specialized for intercellular communication, Composed of Neurons
Define- Neuron Cells that can be stimulated to undergo electrical and chemical changes, Found in brain and spinal cord
What are the 3 parts of a neuron? Dendrite, Cell Body, Axon
Axons are insulated by what? A Myelin Sheath
What is the small gap in-between neurons called? Synaptic Cleft
Describe- Connective Tissue To bind and support the other 3 types of tissue, has relative scarcity of cells/Bone and Blood
Define- Organ A distinct structural unit in the body specialized for a complex series of functions
What is the function of Cartilage? A connective tissue that supports the airways to prevent their collapse
Define- Anatomic Position Body erect, facing forward, arms at side with palms facing forward with thumbs pointing outward
Define- Ventral/Anterior Front surface of the body
Define- Dorsal/Posterior Back surface of the body
Define- Lateral Towards the side of the body, away from central axis
Define- Medial Towards the center of the body
Define- Distal Farther from the point of origin of the structure in question/Elbow is distal to shoulder
Define- Proximal Closer to the point of attachment
Define- Prone Lying on the abdomen, face down
Define- Supine Lying on back with the face up
Define- Flexion A movement that bends a joint
Define- Extension A movement that straightens a joint
Define- Abduction A movement that takes a body part farther from the central axis
Define- Adduction A movement that brings a body part closer to the central axis
Define- Sagittal Plane Vertical plane that divides the body into Left/Right
Define- Frontal Plane Vertical plane that divides the body from Front/Back
Define- Transverse Plane Horizontal plane that divides the body from Top/Bottom
Define- Body Cavity Spaces within the body that contain major organ systems
Name the 2 main cavities in the body Ventral and Dorsal
6 Ventral Cavity Divisions Thoracic, Pericardial, Pleural, Abdominal, Peritoneal, Pelvic
2 Dorsal Cavity Divisions Cranial and Spinal
Define- Hematopoiesis The formation of RBCs in the bone marrow
Define- Osteoblasts Cells that produce collagen fibers and deposit calcium to form bones
How many bones are in the human skeleton? 206
Define- Synarthrosis Fixed or immovable joints/Facial, cranial bones
Define- Amphiarthrosis Partially movable joints/Vertebrae
Define- Diarthrosis Free moving/Shoulder, elbow, knee
2 bones are held together by? Ligaments
Define- Articular Cartilage Allows the surfaces of bones to slide against each other without causing damage
Skeletal muscles account for what % of weight in the body? 45%
What attaches muscles to the skeleton? Tendons
What 3 things make up Meninges? Pia Matter, the Arachnoid, the Dura Matter/Surround spinal cord & brain
Describe- The Digestive System Responsible for the absorption of nutrients and the elimination of waste from the digestive tract
Jaundice is caused by? A damaged liver and elevated levels of bilirubin
Capillaries in the kidneys form in to tight balls called Glomeruli/Enclosed in Bowman's Capsule
Define- External Respiration The exchange of gases in the lungs
Define- Internal Respiration The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide at the cellular level
Define- Alveoli Tiny, oxygenated sacs in the lungs
Define- Hormones Chemical substances released into circulation by one group of cells that affect another group
The Master Gland of the Endocrine System is The Pituitary Gland
Define- Glucagon Promotes the breakdown of glycogen back into glucose and increases its release into the blood
Created by: jasoneldert