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HTI CH 4 Review

What does infection control require? Recognizing potential sources of transmission and breaking the chain of infection
List techniques for breaking the chain of infection- Hand Hygiene, PPE, Standard and Expanded Precautions
Define- Infection Invasion and growth of a microorganism that causes disease
Define- Pathogens Infectious organisms; Viruses, Bacteria, Fungi, Protists, Helminthes, Prions
Define- HAI Health Care Associated Infections/Nonsocomial Infections
Define BBP- Pathogens/infectious agents that are carried in the blood and other bodily fluids
What is the principle risk of injury as a phlebotomist? Accidental needle sticks
List common BBPs- Babesiosis, Colorado Tick Fever, Hepatitis B, C, D, HIV, Malaria, Syphilis
How long can Hepatitis B survive outside the body? Up to one week
The 3 primary elements of the Chain of Infection are The Reservoir, Means of Transmission, & a Susceptible Host
List the 6 links in the Chain of Infection Pathogenic Agent, Reservoir, Method of Escape, Mode of Transmission, Method of Entry, Susceptible Host
Define- Reservoir Source of infection
Define- Fomite Contaminated object/Equipment, Food, Water
Tuberculosis can be transmitted by Airborne droplets
List the 5 Means of Transmission Contact, Droplet, Airborne, Common Vehicle, Vector
Define- Contact Transmission Infection through direct contact with a patient; Indirect infection through contact with a fomite
Define- Droplet Transmission Generated by source by coughing, sneezing, or talking, Liquid splashes, transferring blood from a syringe to a tube
What is the average distance that droplets can travel? Approximately 3 feet
Define- Airborne Transmission Airborne Droplet Nuclei/Dust Particles; can travel long distances and cause infection through inhalation
Examples of Airborne Transmission related illnesses Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Rubeola Virus, Varicella Zoster Virus
What special equipment can reduce the risk of Airborne Transmission? HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) Filters
Define- Common Vehicle Transmission A common source that causes multiple infections/Caused by food, water, equipment
Define- Vector Transmission Agents that carry pathogens without causing themselves harm/Mosquitoes
Common Vector-Related Illnesses Malaria, Yellow Fever, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
OSHA requires that all employers have this with regard to infections ECP- Exposure Control Plan
What is the most important and effective means of preventing the spread of infection? Proper Hand Hygiene
When should you perform hand hygiene? Before/After patient contact, ""donning & removing gloves, Before performing procedures, After removing PPE, Before/After Break time
Define- PPE Personal Protective Equipment/Barriers, Respirators, Gowns, Face Shields, Goggles, Shoe Covers, Gloves
Define- N95 Respirator A specially fitted respirator that filters out at least 95% or all airborne particles
Define- Standard Precautions Inception control measures that use barrier protection and work practice controls to prevent contact between skin and infectious areas of patients
When were the Standard Precautions guidelines published? 1996/ Published by the CDC
List common Standard Precautions Hand Hygiene, Gloves, Gowns, Face Protection, Sharps Disposal, Cough Etiquette
Order- Putting on PPE Gown, Mask/Respirator/Goggles/Face Shield, Gloves
Order- Removing PPE Gown, Gloves, Hand Hygiene, Goggles/Face Shield, Mask/Respirator
What year did OSHA make the Standard Precautions law? 1992
How should all specimens be handled? As if they contain BBPs/Ensures personal safety and the safety of others
Define- Isolation Control Separation of an infection source from susceptible hosts
Define- PE Protective Environment/Isolation unit for immunocompromised patients
Define- Tier I PE Precautions used for all patients in hospital without regard to their diagnosis
Define- Tier II PE Uses Expanded Precautions (EP)/For patients suspected of carrying an infection such as MRSA
Define- MRSA Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
List 3 types of EP Protections Airborne, Droplet, Contact
Define- Airborne Infection Isolation Precautions Used for patients known to have diseases transmitted through Droplet Nuclei
What is the main component of Droplet Precaution? Wearing a mask when within 3 feet of patient, Gloves
Examples of Droplet Transmitted Diseases Diptheria, Meningitis, Pneumonia, Sepsis, Scarlet Fever, Adenovirus, Influenza, Mumps, Rubella
Examples of Contact transmitted Diseases Clostridium Difficile, Herpes, Impetigo, Scabies, Ebola, Conjunctivitis, Zoster
Process for Spill Clean Up Wear gloves, Use 10% bleach disinfectant, Clean visible blood first, Allow bleach to remain in contact for 20 to 30 minutes
Varicella Zoster is the cause of Chickenpox
A common example of a Vector is An insect
10% bleach solution should be made how often? Once a week
Created by: jasoneldert



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