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HTI CH 1-3

CH 1-3 Review

Phleb Means... -tomy means... Vein/To make an incision
Organizations that provide accredition? AMT, ASPT, NAACLS, NPA
Define Certification Evidence that an individual has demonstrated proficiency in an area of study
What states require Licensure? California, Louisiana, Nevada, & Washington
Define CEU Continuing Education Units
Define Informed Consent Patient must be informed of intended treatments and risks before they are performed
Define HIPAA Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, 1996
Define PHI Protected Health Information
Information considered to be PHI? Patient's name, address, race, health status, treatments, and payment
What is the monitoring system for institutions that train phlebotomists? Accreditation
What must you do to maintain certification? CEUs
What should you do when a patient refuses to have blood drawn? Notify the patient's nurse to ensure that the physician is notified promptly
What does the Clinical Laboratory do? Analyzes samples from patients at the request of physicians; Samples include blood, urine, & other bodily fluids
What are the divisions of the Clinical Laboratory? Anatomical/Surgical and Clinical Pathology
Who supervises the Clinical Lab? A licensed physician or pathologist
What are the 3 areas of the Anatomical/Surgical Lab? Cytogenics, Cytopathology, Histology
Name the departments of the Clinical Pathology Lab Blood Bank, Chemistry, Specimen Processing, Coagulation, Hematology, Flow Cytometry, Microbiology, Molecular Diagnostics, Serology/Immunology, Urinalysis, Phlebotomy
How is blood type determined? By the presence of particular pathogens on the surface of RBCs
What are the two major antigen groups used for blood type testing? The ABO Group and the Rh Group
Define Autologous Donation The patient's donation of their own blood prior to a surgery or other medical procedure
4 ways that blood is stored in the blood bank are- Packed cells w/o plasma, fresh frozen plasma, platelets, cryoprecipitate (from fresh plasma with no clotting factors)
List several Chemistry Panels BMP, Lipid Panel, Electrolytes, CMP, Glucose, Liver Function Panel, Myocardial Infarction, Renal Disease
Define Electrophoresis The separation of the chemical components of the blood by using electricity
What specimen is used in Chemistry Tests? Serum/Plasma
How is serum collected for Chem Tests? In a tube with no anticoagulants; SST Tube or Red Top Tube
What is an SST Tube? A Serum Separator Tube; uses polymer gel to divide the blood into its components
Define STAT Short Turn Around Time
What is the normal color of serum? Clear or pale yellow
Define Icteric Serum Serum that contains high levels of bilirubin causing it to have a darker color
Define Lipemic Serum Serum that contains high levels of fats causing it to have a cloudy appearance
Define Hemolyzed Serum Serum in which RBCs have been broken causing it to have a pink appearance
Define Hemostasis The process by which the body stops blood from leaking out of a wound; Involves coagulation/clotting factors
What specimen is used for Coagulation Tests? Plasma
aPTT Testing monitors what? Herapin Therapy; Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time
PT/INR Testing monitors what? Coumadin/Warfarin Therapy; ProTime/International Normalized Ratio
What are some of the Coagulation Tests? aPTT, PT/INR, FDP, Fibrinogen
What does the Hematology Department do? Analyzes blood for evidence of diseases that affect the blood; RBCs, WBCs, Clotting of blood, platelets
What specimen does the Hematology Department use? Whole Blood
What is the main anticoagulant used in the Hematology Dept? EDTA
What is the most common Hematology Test? CBC/Complete Blood Count
A CBC is made up of what tests? Hb, Hat, WBC Count, RBC Count, & Platelet Count, MPV, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, Diff
A CBC test is looking for the prescience of what conditions? Anemia, Leukemia, Infectious Diseases, Other conditions that affect blood cell numbers and types of blood cells
Define Flow Cytometry Technique used in Hematology that identifies markers on WBCs; Identifies AIDS, HIV
What specimens are used in Flow Cytometry? Whole Blood/Bone Marrow
List other Hematology Tests Bodily Fluid Analysis, Bone Marrow, ESR, Sickle Cell
What does the Microbiology Department do? Isolates and identifies microorganisms in patient samples; Responsible for infection control and antibiotic treatments
What specimens are used in Microbiology Department tests? Blood, urine, throat swabs, sputum, feces, pus, and other bodily fluids
What are the 4 divisions of the Microbiology Department? Bacteriology, Mycology (fungus), Parasitology, Virology
What does the Molecular Diagnostics Department do? Test and diagnose genetic disorders, analyze forensic evidence, & track disease
What is the main component involved in Molecular Diagnostics Testing? DNA
What does the Serology/Immunology Department do? Test patient's immune response through the detection of antibodies
What does the Urinalysis/Clinical Microscopy Department do? Examines urine to assess kidney function; Test for diabetes and elevated glucose and protein levels
Define Reagents Pads used in urine specimen collection that change colors to indicate testing results
Define CLIA '88 Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act of 1988; regulates all facilities that perform patient testing
Who sets the Standards and Guidelines that phlebotomists follow? CLSI; Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute
What two agencies are involved with the accreditation of clinical labs? The Joint Commission and the College of American Pathologists (CAP)
How often are inspections performed under the Joint Commission? Every 2 years
How often are inspections performed by the CAP? Every 2 years; Within 6 months of accreditation renewal date
Define HMO Health Maintenance Organization; Provide full-service outpatient care
Define PPO Preferred Provider Organization; A group of doctors and hospitals that service large employers and healthcare workers
Define Urgent Care Center Provider of emergency outpatient services to those without appointments or the means to pay for their medical care
Define POLs Physician Office Laboratories; An On-site lab that physicians use to analyze specimens
Define Reference Laboratory Independent labs that analyze samples from other healthcare facilites
What is the Fiscal Services Department responsible for? Admitting, Medical Records, and Billing
In addition to laboratory, which department may draw for ABGs? Respiratory Therapy
What department uses radioisotopes to perform tests? Nuclear Medicine
What department analyzes a Culture and Sensitivity Test? Microbiology
What specimen is used in Occult Blood Testing? Feces
List several safety hazard categories Biological, Physical, Sharps, Chemical, Radioactive Reagents, Electrical, Fire or Explosive, Latex Sensitivity
Describe some of the general safety practices for phlebotomists Hand Hygiene, Using PPE, Avoid touching your face, Never store food or drink in the lab refrigerator, Protect feet from spills and slips
Define Sharps Hazard Hazards that involve needles, Accidental sticks, Contamination by BBPs
What is the Needle Stick Safety and Prevention Act of 2001? A mandate that requires all needles to possess a safety device to minimize accidental sticks
3 things a phlebotomist needs to do if an accidental stick occurs Immediately flood area with water and clean, Report the event to employer immediately, Seek immediate medical attention and testing
What is the GHS? Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals; Established in 2012
What is contained on a GHS Label? Chemical identity, Manufacturer, Hazard warnings, Pictograms, First Aid Measures
What document is required by OSHA to be included with every chemical agent? SDS (Safety Data Sheet)
List several sections of an SDS Identification, Hazard Ident., Ingredients, First-Aid Measures, Fire-Fighting Measures, Accidental Release Measures, Handling & Storage, Exposure Controls, Stability, Toxicological Information
What is the NFPA? National Fire Protection Association; Uses a diamond-shaped symbol; Higher numbers = higher risk
What are the 4 divisions of an NFPA Label? Blue=Health Hazards, Red=Flammability, Yellow=Reactivity Warning, White=Other
What is a CHP? Chemical Hygiene Plan; Describes all safety procedures, special precautions, and emergency procedures when working with chemicals
In what order are Acid and Water mixed? Add acid to water, never water to acid
What are the general rules of Electrical Hazard exposure? Avoid extension cords, Report frayed cords or damaged equipment, Know the location of the circuit breaker, Avoid any contact with electrical equipment while drawing blood
Explain the response to a patient who has experienced an electrical shock Turn off equipment, Break contact between patient and source, Call for medical assistance, Begin CPR
The acronym R.A.C.E stands for- Rescue, Alarm, Call, Extinguish
What is the PASS Technique for putting out a fire? Pull the pin, Aim at the base of the fire, Squeeze the handle, Sweep
Define Fire Class A Wood, Paper, Cloth/ Extinguisher A, ABC
Define Fire Class B Grease, Oil, Flammable Liquids/ Extinguisher ABC, BC, Halogenated Agents
Define Fire Class C Energized Electrical Equipment/ Extinguisher C
Define Fire Class D Flammable Metals/Extinguisher D or Special Equipment
Define Fire Class K Cooking Oils, Grease/Extinguisher K or Special Equipment
How is Bleeding Aid administered? Apply direct pressure to wound, Elevate wound unless a fracture is suspected, Maintain pressure until medical assistance arrives
How is First Aid for Shock administered? Call for assistance, Keep victim lying down, Elevate legs unless a fracture is suspected, Turn the victim's head to the side, Keep person warm
Define Irritant Contact Dermatitis Direct skin contact with materials that cause redness, swelling, and itching
Define Allergic Contact Dermatitis True allergic response; Body's immune system reacts to proteins absorbed by the skin
Define Anaphylaxis A rapid and severe immune reaction that may cause the throat to swell shut and cause a drop in blood pressure; Life Threatening
The most common material used in surgical gloves is Nitrile
Created by: jasoneldert



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