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8.2

Mysteries of the Human Body Systems

TermDefinition
Central Nervous System The part of the brain connecting the spinal cord with the forebrain and cerebrum.
Neuron A nerve cell; the fundamental unit of the nervous system.
Peripheral Nervous system Consists of the nerves and nerve cells outside of the brain and spinal cord. The main function is to connect the Central Nervous System to the limbs and organs, essentially serving as a relay between the brain and spinal cord and the rest of the body.
Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Hearing loss or impairment resulting from exposure to loud sound.
Optic Nerve Either of the pair of sensory nerves that comprise the second pair of cranial nerves and form an optic chiasma before passing to the eye and spreading over the anterior surface of the retina, and conduct visual stimuli to the brain.
Blind Spot The small circular area in the retina where the optic nerve enters the eye that is devoid of rods and cones and is insensitive to light.
Cerebrum The integrating center for memory, learning, emotions, and other highly complex function of the central nervous system composed of right and left hemispheres.
Brain Stem The part of the brain connecting the spinal cord with the forebrain and cerebrum.
Cerebellum A large projecting part of the brain concerned especially with the coordination of muscles and the maintenance of bodily equilibrium, situated between the brain stem and the back of the cerebrum.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule that determines the inherited structure of a cell’s proteins
Chromosome Any of the usually linear bodies in the cell nucleus that contain the genetic material.
Gene A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA.
Dominant Trait A genetic trait is considered dominant if it is expressed in a person who has only one copy of the gene associated with the trait.
Recessive Trait A condition that appears only in individuals who have received two copies of a mutant gene, one copy from each parent.
Mutation A rare change in the DNA of a gene, ultimately creating genetic diversity.
Pedigree A diagram of a family tree showing the occurrence of heritable characters in parents and offspring over multiple generations.
Created by: moliphant