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Chapter 33

Restructuring the Postwar World

TermDefinition
United Nations An international peacekeeping organization founded in 1945 to provide security to the nations of the world.
Iron Curtain During the Cold War, the boundary separating the Communist nations of Eastern Europe from the mostly democratic nations of Western Europe.
Containment A U.S. foreign policy adopted in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances.
Truman Doctrine Announced by President Harry Truman in 1947, a U.S. policy of giving economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents.
Marshall Plan A U.S. program of economic aid to European countries to help them rebuild after WWII.
Cold War The state of diplomatic hostility between the United States and Soviet Union in the decades following WWII.
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization - a defensive military alliance formed in 1949 by ten Western European nations, the United States, and Canada.
Warsaw Pact A military alliance formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and seven Easter European countries.
Brinkmanship A policy of threatening to go to war in response to any enemy aggression.
Mao Zedong Communist leader of China that took total control of China after WWII.
Jiang Jieshi Nationalist leader of China that fought back against Mao Zedong before and after WWII. His defeat allowed China to fall to communism.
Commune In Communist China, a collective farm on which a great number of people work and live together.
Red Guards Militia units formed by young Chinese people in 1966 in response to Mao Zedong's call for a social and cultural revolution.
Cultural Revolution A 1966-1976 uprising in China led by the Red Guards, with the goal of establishing a society of peasants and workers in which all were equal.
38th Parallel Line that crosses Korea at 38 degrees north latitude. Divides North Korea from South Korea.
Douglas MacArthur Leader of the United Nations forces in the Korean War.
Ho Chi Minh Communist leader of Vietnam that took full control of the country after WWII.
Domino Theory The idea that if a nation falls under Communist control, nearby nations will also fall under Communist control.
Ngo Dinh Diem Leader of the anti-communist government in South Vietnam. He ruled as
Vietcong A group of Communist guerrillas who, with the help of North Vietnam, fought against the South Vietnamese government in the Vietnam War.
Vietnamization President Richard Nixon's strategy for ending U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, involving gradual withdrawal of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces.
Khmer Rogue A group of communist rebels who seized power in Cambodia in 1975.
Third World During the Cold War, the developing nations not allied with either the United States or the Soviet Union.
Nonaligned Nations The independent countries that remained neutral in the Cold War competition between the United States and Soviet Union
Fidel Castro Communist dictator of Cuba. Ruled harshly and led to the United States cutting off trade with Cuba.
Anastasio Somoza Nicaraguan dictator during the Cold War. His dictatorship was sponsored by the United States.
Ayatollah Khomeini Religious leader that opposed the Iranian shah ideas of westernization. Led many uprisings throughout Iran.
Nikita Khrushchev Soviet Union's leader after the death of Stalin. He worked to undo the work of Stalin and make the Soviet Union in his own image.
John F. Kennedy American President during the Cuban Missile Crisis, a period where the buildup and use of nuclear weapons became a real threat.
Lyndon Johnson American President after Kennedy. Escalated American involvement in Vietnam.
Détente A policy of reducing Cold War tensions that was adopted by the United States during the presidency of Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon American President that worked to ease Cold War tensions with the Soviet Union
SALT The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks - a series of meetings in the 1970s, in which leaders of the United States and the Soviet Union agreed to limit their nations' stocks of nuclear weapons
Ronald Reagan American President that continued the policy of détente. Put a great deal of pressure on the Soviet Union through his defense spending.
Created by: tj03tayl