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PMI Chapter 3

Phlebotomy Essentials Ch 3

Infection A condition that results when a microorganism is able to invade the body; multiply; and cause injury
Communicable Diseases Able to spread from person to person
Nosocomial Applies to patient infections acquired in the hospital
HAI Healthcare-Associated Infections
Healthcare-Associated Infections Acquired during healthcare delivery in all healthcare settings, including home care
Microbe short for microorganism; includes bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses
Pathogen microbes that cause disease
CDC Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Center for Disease Control and Prevention Federal agency charged with the investigation and control of certain diseases
NHSN National Healthcare Safety Network
National Healthcare Safety Network Widely used HAI tracking system that provides data for identifying problem areas and the measuring of prevention efforts
HICPAC Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee
Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee Provides the CDC with advice and guidance regarding the practice of infection control and prevention in healthcare settings
Antibiotic Resistant Infections C. Diff, MRSA, Enterococcus
Multi-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria E. Coli, Klebsiella, Acinetobacterbaumannii, Pseudomonas
Chain of Infection A series of components or events that lead to an infection
Infectious Agent Pathogen responsible for causing an infection (bacteria, fungi, protozoa, virus)
Reservoir Source of an infectious organism (animal, human, equipment, food, soil, water)
Exit Pathway The way an infectious agent is able to leave a reservoir host (blood, exudates, excretions, secretions)
Means of Transmission Method by which an infectious agent travels from a reservoir to a susceptible individual (airborne, contact, droplet, vector, vehicle)
Airborne Transmission Dispersal of infectious agents in particles that can be inhaled
Contact Transmission Most common means of transmitting infections
Droplet Transmission The transfer of an infectious agent to the mucous membranes of the mouth, eyes, and nose
Vector Transmission The transfer of an infectious agent carried by insects, or animals
Vehicle Transmission Transmission of an infectious agent through contaminated food, water, or drugs
Entry Pathway The way an infectious agent is able to enter a susceptible host (body orifices, mucous membranes, breaks in the skin)
Susceptible Host Someone with a decreased ability to resist infection (newborns, elderly, immune suppressed)
Immune A person who has received a vaccination or recovered from a particular virus that has antibodies against that virus
Infection Control Programs A program that protects patients, employees, visitors, or anyone having business in a healthcare facility
Asepsis Condition of being free of contaminates or germs that could cause disease
Asepsis Techniques A healthcare practice used to reduce the chance of microbial contamination
Hand Hygiene Most important means of preventing the spread of infections
Common PPE Gloves, gowns, lab coats, scrubs, masks, goggles, face shields
Respirators NIOSH-approved N95; required in patient rooms with airborne diseases
Isolation Procedures Procedures that separate patients with certain transmissible infections from other
Protective/Reverse Isolation Protects a highly susceptible patient from infection
Body Susbstance Isolation Protects healthcare workers from pathogens by requiring gloves to be worn when dealing with moist body substances
Universal Precautions Infection control strategy put in place when healthcare workers began contracting HIV
Standard Precautions Specifies precautions to use in caring for all patients regardless of diagnosis or presumed infection status
Transmission-based Precautions Precautions that reduce the risk of airborne, droplet, or contact transmission
Airborne Precautions Precautions used for patients known to be infected by airborne droplet nuclei
Droplet Precaution Precaution taken for when a patient becomes infected by droplets generated by talking, coughing, or sneezing
Contact Precaution Precautions put in place for patient infections that can be transmitted by direct or indirect contact
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Act
Occupational Safety and Health Act Federal agency that mandates and enforces safe working conditions for employees
Biosafety The safe handling of biological substances that pose a risk to health
Biohazard Anything harmful or potentially harmful to health
Parenteral A route in which a person is exposed to a biohazard other than through the digestive tract
Airborne Aerosols and splashes that can become airborne
Ingestion Biohazards that enter through the mouth
Nonintact Skin Breaks in the skin that biohazards can enter through
Percutaneous Exposure to biohazards in blood or other body fluids
Permucosal When biohazards enter the body through mucous membranes
BBP Blood-borne Pathogens
Blood-borne Pathogens An infectious microorganism present in the blood, tissues, or other body fluids
HBV Hepatitis B Virus
Hepatitis B Virus BBP that targets the liver, most common occurrence in the healthcare field
HCV Hepatitis C Virus
Hepatitis C Virus Most widespread chronic blood borne illness, no vaccination exists
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Human Immunodeficiency Virus virus that causes AIDs
BBP Standard OSHA regulation designed to protect employees with potential occupational exposure to pathogens found in body fluids
Engineering Controls Devices that isolate or remove a workplace BBP hazard
Work Practice Controls Practices that alter how tasks are performed to reduce the likelihood of BBP exposure
Exposure Control Plan Documents the evaluation and implementation of safer medical devices
Exposure Incident Report An immediate response to exposure incidents
Electrical Safety Electrical shock or other electrical injuries
Fire Safety Knowledge of fire components, fire classes, and fire extinguishers
Fire Components Fuel,+Heat,+Oxygen=Fire
Class A Fire Ordinary combustibles (wood, paper, clothing)
Class B Fire Flammable objects, liquids, or vapors (paint, oils, greases, gasoline)
Class C Fire Electrical equipment
Class D Fire Combustible or reactive metals ( sodium, potassium, magnesium, lithium)
Class K Fire High-temperature cooking oils, grease, or fats
Class A Extinguisher Soda and Acid or water to cool
Class B Extinguisher Foam, dry chemicals, or carbon dioxide to block the source of oxygen and smother
Class C Extinguisher Dry chemicals, carbon dioxide, halon, or other nonconducting agents to smother
Class ABC Extinguisher Dry chemicals, can be used on A, B, or C fires
Class K Extinguisher Potassium-based alkaline liquid designed for high-temperature fires that cool and smother without splashing
R.A.C.E Rescue (individuals), Alarm (911), Confine(keep from spreading), Extinguish(fire)
PASS Pull pin, Aim nozzle, Squeeze trigger, Sweep nozzle
Radiation Safety Distance, shielding, and time
HazCom Protects employees who may come into contact with hazardous chemicals
Health Hazard Pictogram carcinogen, mutagenicity, reproductive toxicity, respiratory sensitizer, target organ toxicity, aspiration toxicity
Flame Pictogram flammables, pyrophonics, self-heating, emits flammable gases, self-reactives, organic peroxides
Exclamation Mark Pictogram skin and eye irritant, skin sensitizer, narcotic effects, hazardous to ozone layer
Gas Cylinder Pictogram gases under pressure
Corrosion Pictogram skin burns, eye damages, corrosive to metals
Exploding Bomb Pictogram explosives, self-reactives, organic peroxides
Flame over Circle Pictogram oxidizers
Environment Pictogram aquatic toxicity
Skull and Crossbones Pictogram fatal or toxic acute toxicity
External Hemorrhage Abnormal or profuse bleeding from an obvious wound
Shock Results when there is an insufficient return-of-blood
CPR Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation
Personal Wellness Proper nutrition, Rest and Exercise, Personal Hygiene, Back Protection, Stress Management
Created by: Bonavita_M



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