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UGS Embryology Final

Embryology of the Urogenital System

QuestionAnswer
In the 3rd week of development the embryo is made up of; A trilaminar germ disk
What are the 3 layers of the trilaminar germ disk? 1) Ectoderm 2) Endoderm 3) Mesoderm
What parts will the intraembryonic mesoderm divide into? 1) Paraxial Mesoderm --> Muscles 2) Intermediate mesoderm --> UGS 3) Lateral Mesoderm --> Ceolom --> pleural, peritoneal, and cardiac cavities
The intermediate mesoderm will lead to the formation of a longitudinal growth on the posterior abdominal wall called: The UG ridge
Where is the UG ridge located? On both side of the mesentery of the gut
What parts does the UG ridge divide into? 1) Gonadal ridge 2) Nephrogenic cord
What does the gonadal ridge form? The testes or ovaries
What are the 3 structures which the nephrogenic cord forms? 1) Pronephros 2) Mesonephros 3) Metanephros
What does the pronephros form? The pronephric tubules and ducts Completely regresses by week 5
Where is the mesonephros formed? In the thoracic and upper lumbar region
What does the mesonephros form? The mesenephric tubules and ducts
The mesenephric ducts persist and open into: The cloaca
What does the metanephros form? The prominent kidney
What is the metanephros made of? The uretric bud and the metanephric blastema
What are the locations of the derivates of the nephrogenic cord relative to one another? Pronephros --> cranial Mesonephros --> Middle Metanephros --> Caudal
What is the cloaca? The caudal part of the hindgut where the rectum and bladder form
What is the uretric bud? An outgrowth of the mesonephric duct
What is the metanephric blastema? A condensation of mesoderm within the nephrogenic cord
If the uretric bud doesn't develop or penetrate the metanephric blastema, what occurs? Renal agenesis
What does the mesonephric duct form in general? The genital ducts in males and the uretric bud A couple of vestigial remnants
The uretric bud penetrates the metanephric duct and divides into: Branches which will become the Major calyces in the adult
If the ureteric bud divides before entering the metanephric blastema, this will lead to the formation of: Double ureters and calcyes Most common form: Double ureter, double calyces, with a single kidney
What is the origin of the uretric bud and metanephric blastema? Mesodermal
Collecting tubules from the uretric duct stimulate the metanephric blastema to form: Metanephric vesicles in the metanephric cap --> Nephrons
Where is the transitional epithelium of the ureter, pelvis, major, and minor calyces derived from? Mesoderm of the uretric bud
Where is the simple cuboidal epithelium of the collecting tubules derived from? Mesoderm of the uretric bud
Where is the simple cuboidal epithelium of the DCT derived from> Mesoderm of the metanephric vesicle
Where is the simple squamous epithelium of the Loop of Henle derived from? Mesoderm of the metanepric vesicle
Where is the simple columnar epithelium of the PCT derived from? Mesoderm of the metanephric vesicle
Where are the podocytes and simple squamous epithelium of Bowman's capsule derived from? Mesoderm of the metanephric vesicle
The urinary bladder, urethra, most of the rectum, and the inferior 2/3 of the vagina are derived from? The cloaca
Why will the cloacal membrane rupture eventually? It is formed of endoderm and ectoderm only
During the 4th-7th weeks, the cloaca is divided into: 1) Ano-rectal canal posteriorly 2) Primitive UG sinus anteriorly
During the 4th-7th weeks, the cloacal membrane is divided into: 1) Anal membrane related to the GIT 2) UG membrane anteriorly
The ano-rectal canal from the cloaca forms the: Rectum and anal canal
The primitive UG sinus from the cloaca forms the: Bladder and Urethra Whole urethra in the female but only partially in the male
At the early stages of development, into what part of the cloaca, does the mesonephric duct open? The primitive UG sinus
At the entrance of the mesonephric ducts, a constriction appears which divides the UG sinus into: 1) Upper vesicourethral canal 2) Lower definite UG sinus
The vesicourethral canal from the primitive UG sinus gives rise to: The urinary bladder and upper prostatic urethra
The definitive UG sinus is divided into: 1) Pelvic part 2) Phallic part
What does the pelvic part of the definitive UG sinus in males give off? Lower prostatic urethra and rest of male urethra
What does the pelvic part of the definitive UG sinus in females give off? Most of the uretha
What does the phallic part of the definitive UG sinus in males give off? Penile urethra
What does the phallic part of the definitive UG sinus in females give off? Lower 2/3 of the vagina and the vestibule of vagina
The vesicourethral canal is continuous with the: Allantois
The allantois becomes: A fibrous cord known as the urachus/Median umbilical ligament in adults
The lower ends of the mesonephric duct become incorporated into: The trigone at the posterior of the bladder
The mesonephric ducts open into the: UG sinus below the bladder
What is the origin of the transitional epithelium of the urinary bladder? Endoderm of the UG sinus and gut tube
What is the consequence of a persistent allantois? A urachal fistula and urine draining from the umbilicus
What is the consequence of a persistent proximal or distal allantois? A urachal sinus
What is the consequence of persistent allantois remnants? Urachal cyts
Where does the female urethra develop from? From the pelvic part of the definitive UG sinus and part of the vesicourethral canal
The female urethra develops endodermal outgrowths in the surrounding mesoderm which will become: Urethral and paraurethral glands
The vestibule of the vagina will develop endodermal outgrowths in the surrounding mesoderm which will become: Greater vestibular glands
What is the origin of the transitional and stratified squamous epithelium of the female urethra? Endoderm of the UG sinus
The prostatic, membranous, and proximal penile urethra are formed from the: Definitive UG sinus and vesicourethral canal
What part of the urethra does the vesicourethral canal form? The upper half of the prostate
The prostatic urethra develops endodermal outgrowths into the surrounding mesoderm to form: The prostate gland
The membranous urethra develops endodermal outgrowths into the surrounding mesoderm to form: Bulbourethral glands
The proximal penile urethra develops endodermal outgrowth in the surrounding mesoderm to form: Littre's glands
The transitional and stratified squamous epithelium of the prostatic, membranous, and proximal penile urethra is derived from: Endoderm of the UG sinus
What is the origin of the distal penile urethra? Surface ectoderm called the glandular plate
The glandular plate and membranous urethra become canalized to form: The navicular fossa
What is the ecotdermal septa lateral to the navicular fossa going to form? Prepuce/Foreskin
Where is the stratified squamous epithelium of the distal urethra derived from? Ectoderm
Where does the kidney ascend to and from where? To the upper lumbar region from the sacral region
Why does the kidney ascend? Due to disporportionate growth of the embryo caudal to the metanephros
What change in the kidney's direction occurs during this ascent? The kidneys rotate 90 degrees medially
How does blood supply to the kidney change in the embryo? The kidney will revcieve blood supply from progressively higher levels until it reaches L2 and renal arteries develop
If the arteries formed during the ascent of the kidney persist, this will lead to: Supernumerary arteries
Damage to a supernumerary artery will lead to: Necrosis of the parenchyma because they are end arteries
Why does renal agenesis occur? Due to failure of the uretric buds to develops
What are the characteristics of unilateral renal agenesis? They are common, more so in males Asymptomatic and compatible with life
What are the characteristics of bilateral renal agenesis? Uncommon Lead to oligohydraminos and uterine compression of the fetus The fetus will have deformed limbs and a deformed face with wrinkly skin Incompatible with life unless a donor is available
When does a pelvic kidney occur? When one or both kidneys fail to ascend
What is a kidney deformity related to pelvic kidneys? Pancake kidneys
When does a horseshoe kidney occur? When inferior poles of the kidneys fuse
Why is normal ascent arrested in horseshoe kidneys? Because the fused portion of the kidney is snagged on the inferior mesenteric artery
What is the major effect of Polycystic kidney disease? Loop of Henle dilates forming large cysts
Polycystic kidney disease is associated with cysts where else? Liver, pancreas, and lungs
How is PKD treated? Dialysis or transplant
Where does AR PKD form from? Collecting ducts
How common is AR PKD? 1/115,000 births
What is the outcome of AR PKD? Large kidney and renal failure in infancy or childhood
What is the prevalence of AD PKD? 1/500-1000 births
Where does AD PKD form? All nephrons segments
What is the outcome of AD PKD? No renal failure until adulthood Less progressive than AR PKD
When is the sexual phenotype of the fetus clear? The 12th week of development
What structures are similar in both sexes of fetus in early development? The immature gonads are identical, the beginning of external genitalia is similar, and both paramesonephric and mesonephric ducts are formed in both
What is the order of differentiation of sexual structures in fetuses? Gonads --> Internal genitalia --> External genitalia
Where are gonads derived from? Coelomic/Germinal epithelium, underlying mesenchyme, and primordial germ cells
Coelomic proliferation and condensation of mesenchyme form the: Gondal/Genital ridge between the mesonephros and dorsal mesentery
What structure does coelomic proliferation form other than the gonadal ridge? Finger-like projections into the underlying mesenchyme called the primary sex cords
Where do large primordial germ cells originate from? The yolk sac
How do large primordial germ cells reach the gonadal ridge? Via the dorsal mesentery
What structure surrounds the primordial germ cells in the gonadal ridge? Primary sex cords
As the gonad grows a deep groove separates it from the dorsal mesentery and mesonephros so that it is? Suspended by its own mesentery
What are the 2 parts of indifferent gonads? An outer cortex and an inner medulla
What happens to the parts of the indifferent gonad in the female? The cortex becomes an ovary and the medulla regresses
What happens to the parts of the indifferent gonad in the male? The medulla becomes the testes and the cortex become the tunica albuginea
Differentiation of the indifferent gonad depends on the absence or presence of: The Y chromosome
The Y chromosome carries what substance which is crucial to testes differentiation? TDF Testis Differentiating Factor
The primary sex cords lose their connection with the surface epithelium in the developing testes due to: Formation of the tunica albuginea
What structures do the primary sex cords in males form? Seminferous cords, tubuli recti, and rete testes
Seminferous cords are made up of what cells and secrete what substance? Sperm and Sertoli cells --> Secrete MIF (Mullerian Inhibiting Factor)
Mesoderm between seminiferous cords give rise to what cells? Leydig cells
Leydig cells secrete: Testosterone
What is the origin of Spermatogonia, Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, and CT stroma of the testes? Mesodermal
When are the seminiferous cords canalized to become tubules? Puberty
The rete tesits will become continuous with: 15-20 mesenephric tubules (which will become efferent ductules)
Efferent ductules are connected to the mesonephric duct which will become: The epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and ejaculatory ducts
When do Leydig cells begin testosterone production? By the 8th week of gestation
Where do the testes descend from and into where? From the abdomen into the scrotum
Why is descent of the testes 'relative'? Because it is due to disproportionate growth of the upper abdominal region away from the pelvic region
What is the gubernaculum? Ligamentous remnants from the regression of the mesonephros
Where does the gubernaculum attach? It passes through the abdominal wall at the site of the future inguinal canal and attaches to the genital swlling
Where does the gubernaculum extend from? The lower pole of the tests along the posterior body wall
Why are the testes held back when the body grows? Because the gubernaculum does not grow in proportion
On each side, what sac of peritoneum extend into the scrotum ventral to the gubernaculum? The vaginal process
Final descent of the testes through the inguinal canal into the scrotum is regulated by: Gonadotrophic and androgenic hormones
The gubernaculum becoming short causes the testes to: Migrate into the scrotum posterior to the vaginal process
What happens to the proximal vaginal process when the testes enters the scrotum? The proximal vaginal process becomes obliterated
What happens to the distal vaginal process when the testes enters the scrotum? It surrounds the anterior testes and persists as the tunica vaginalis
What is the purpose of the remnant of the gubernaculum in the scrotum? Anchors the testes in the scrotum Prevents twisting on its spermatic cord
What is cryptorchidism? Failure of the testes to descend either unilaterally or bilaterally
What is the main causes of cryptorchidism? Abnormal androgen production or failure of the gubernaculum to become short
What are the possible locations of the testes in cryptorchidism? Abdomen, inguinal canal, or superficial inguinal ring
What are the consequences of cryptorchidism? Impaired spermatogenesis and atropy of the testes Increased risk of Malignancy Associated with congenital inguinal hernia
What are the possible locations of ectopic testes? Lower abdominal wall, medial thigh, base of penis, or perineum
What is the cause of Congenital inguinal hernia? Persistent vaginal process allowing an intestinal loop to descend into the scrotum
What condition is a congenital inguinal hernia associated with? Cryptorchidism
What is the cause of hydrocele? Accumulation of fluid in an unobliterated portion of the vaginal process
If the abdominal portion of the vaginal process is unobliterated: No herniation occurs, but peritoneal fluid can enter
If the middle portion of the vaginal process is unobliterated: Hydrocele of the spermatic cord
In the developing ovary, the primary sex cords develop into; The rete ovari which degenerates
What cords develops in the developing ovary and incorporate primordial germ cells? Secondary sex cords
What covering develops around the gonads of both sexes? Tunica albuginea
Secondary sex cords break apart and form: Isolated clusters of primordial follicles
What is the origin of primary oocytes, follicular cells, and CT stroma of the ovaries? Mesodermal
What are the steps for descent of the ovaries? 1) Gubernaculum pulls them into the pelvis 2) Gubernaculum becomes attached near the entry of the uterine tube 3) Ovary is directed medially into the pelvis
The gubernaculum which extends from the medial pole of the ovary to the uterus forms: The ovarian ligament
The gubernaculum which extends from the uterus to the labia majora forms: The round ligament of the uterus
What is the function of MIF secreted from Sertoli cells in the embryo? Suppression of paramesonephric ducts
What is the function of testosterone from Leydig cells in the embryo? Stimulation of mesonephric ducts
What is the function of DHT in the embryo? Stimulation of external genitalia, penis, scrotum, and prostate
What is the function of estrogen in the embryo? Stimulation of paramesonephric ducts and external genitalia
Testosterone from Leydig cells are converted into DHT by: 5 alpha reductase
How do testosterone and DHT aid in differentiation of external and internal genitalia? Testosterone and DHT bind to specific high-affinity IC receptor proteins This hormone-receptor complex binds to DNA to regulate transcription of tissue-specific genes and their protein products
What are the paramesonephric ducts? Invaginations of the lateral UG ridge
What are the derivatives of the cranial portions of the paramesonephric ducts in females? Uterine tubes and the hydatid of Morgagni
What are the derivatives of the caudal portions of the paramesonephric ducts in females? They fuse to form the UV primordium which forms the uterus, cervix, and superior third of the vagina They also bring together folds of peritoneum to form the broad ligaments
The UV primordium projects into the dorsal wall of the UG sinus and induces what? The formation of the sinovaginal bulbs
The sinovaginal bulbs fuse to form the: Vaginal plate
When the solid vaginal plate canalizes it forms: The inferior 2/3 of the vagina
What is the origin of the epithelial lining of the vagina? Endodermal
What separates the lumen of the vagina from the UG sinus? The hymen
What are the derivatives of the mesonephric ducts in the female? The metanephric kidneys
What are the vestigial remnants of the mesonephric ducts and tubules in the females? Appendix vesiculosa, epoophoron, paroophorn, and Gartner's duct
As the paramesonephric ducts turn medially to fuse, they bring together peritoneal folds which give rise to: 1) Left and right broad ligaments 2) 2 peritoneal compartments, the urorectal pouch and uterovesical pouch
What is the cause of agenesis of the uterus? Failure of the paramesonephric ducts to develop Failure of the vaginal plate
What is the cause of the rudimentary uterus? Underdevelopment of caudal paramesonephric ducts
What are the causes of duplication and atresia of the uterine canal? Lack of fusion of the paramesonephric ducts
What are the types of duplication and atresia of the uterine canal? 1) Uterus didelphys 2) Uterus Arcuatus 3) Uterus bicornis 4) Atresia with the rudimentary part lying as an appendage 5) Cervical atresia 6) Atresia of the vagina
What is uterus didelphys? The most extreme form of uterus duplication Completely double uteri
What is the uterus arcuatus? Slightly indented uterus Least extreme form of uterus duplication
What is uterus bicornis? Uterus has two horns entering 1 vagina Most common
What is bicornis unicollis with 1 rudimentary horn? Atresia with the rudimentary part lying as an appendage
How does cervical atresia occur? The lower part of both uteruses are atretic
How does atresia of the vagina occur? The sinovaginal bulbs fail to develop
What else is seen with atresia of the vagina? A small vaginal pouch from the paramesonephric ducts surrounds the opening of the cervix
If the sinovaginal bulbs develop BUT do not FUSE, what happens? Double vagina
What is the fate of the paramesonephric ducts in males? The cranial portions and UV primordium regress completely Appendix testes persists
What are the derivatives of the mesonephric ducts in males? The definitive adult kidney, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and ejaculatory duct Vestigial remnants of cranial ends --> appendix epididymis
What are the derivatives of the mesonephric tubules in males? Efferent tubules Vestigial remnants --> Paradidymis
What is the job of the testes in differentiation of the male external genitalia? Production of androgens which stimulate the growth and development
The phallus elongates in the development of the male genitalia to form: The penis
Elongation of the phallus pulls the UG folds forward to form: A urethral groove
The urethral groove is continuous with: The UG opening
The cavity of the definitive UG sinus extends onto the surface of the: Enlarging genital tubercle and its endodermal lined urethral groove
The urethral groove is temporarily filled with: A solid endodermal urethral plate which recanalizes to form an even deeper groove
What is the difference between the urethral groove in males and females? Males --> Groove is long and broad Females --> Groove is shorter
When the UG folds are fused, the urethral plate in men is transformed into: The penile urethra
How is the tip of the glans penis formed? Ectodermal cell cord grows inward toward the lumen of the urethra
When the ectodermal cell ingrowth at the tip of the penis obtains a lumen, this provides a communication between: The bladder and the end of the penis
Skin at the base of the glans grows and becomes the: Foreskin/Prepuce
Labioscrotal swellings in the male migrate caudally and grow towards each other to form: The scrotum
What does the genital tubercle in the male form? The glans and shaft of penis
What does the definitve UG sinus in the male form? The penile urethra
What does the urethral fold in the male form? The penis around the penile urethra
What do the labioscrotal folds in the male form? Scrotum
What is the cause of hypospadias? Incomplete fusion of the UG folds or failure of the ectodermal ingrowth from the glans Due to inadequate androgen production at a critical stage in the fusion of the urethral folds
What is hypospadias characterized by? Abnormal openings of the urethra on the inferior aspect of the penis An underdeveloped penis
What will complete failure of the urethral folds to fuse lead to? A sagittal slit along the entire length of the penis and scrotum
What is the cause of epispadias? Development of the genital tubercle caudally in the region of the urorectal septum The UG membrane ruptures and UG sinus opens on dorsal surface of the penis
What is epispadias characterized by? Urethral openings on the dorsum of the penis
What condition is epispadias characterized by? Exstrophy of the bladder
What is Exstrophy of the bladder/Ectopia vesica? When the posterior wall of the bladder is exposed to the exterior
What is the cause of Ectopia vesicae? Failure of the anterior abdominal wall and anterior bladder wall development
What are the clinical manifestations of ectopica vesicae? Associated with urine drainage to the exterior and epispadias
How is external genitalia development in the female stimulated? In the absence of androgens, estrogen stimulate it
What happens to the phallus in females? It undergoes only slight enlargement to form the clitoris
What happens to the UG folds in the female embryo? They do not fuse and form the labia minora
What happens to the genital swellings/labioscrotal swellings in the female? Labia majora Fuse anteriorly to produce and elevation--> Mons pubis Posterior margins unite --> Posterior labial commisure
The area inside the labia minora which was not enclosed by UG folds becomes the: Vestibule of the vagina Contains the opening of urethra and vagina
What is the Epoophoron? 10-15 parallel tubules in the lateral mesoalpinx between the ovary and uterine tube
What is the Epoophoron a remnant of? Cranial mesonephric tubules which are attached to the mesonephric ducts
Where do the tubules of the Epoophoron end? Inferiorly in the hilus of the ovary blindly Upper ends open into a rudimentary duct (Duct of Epoophoron)
What is the Paraoophoron? Few, very short rudimentary tubules in the broad ligaments
What is the Paraophoron a remnant of? The caudal mesonephric tubules not attached to the mesonephric ducts
Where doe the tubules of the Paraoophorn end? Both ends are blind
What is the duct of Epoophoron? A remnant of the mesonephric duct
If the duct of Epoophorn persists, what forms? The Duct of Gartner A cyst in the anterior of lateral vaginal wall
What is the path of the duct of Epoophorn? Traced along the uterine tube --> Lateral margin of the uterus --> up to the level of the internal os --> runs through the cervix and lateral vaginal wall --> ends in the free margin of the hymen
What is the Vesicular appendix? One of 2 pedunculated cysts attached to the fimbriated end of the uterine tube
What is the vesicular appendix a remnant of? The cranial end of paramesonephric ducts
What form of hemaphroditism is seen in humans? Pseudohemaphrotidism
What is Pseudohemaphrotidism? Having the gonads of one sex and the external genitalia of the other
How are individuals born with hemaphroditism identified genetically? By identifying the sex chromatin body/Barr body --> females
What is Female Pseudohemaphroditism? Ovaries and male external genitalia
What is the main cause of Female Pseudohemaphroditism? Congenital adrenal hyperplasia which leads to increase production of androgen Mostly due to 21 beta hydroxylase deficiency --> no corticoid synthesis--> accumulation of steroid intermediates --> adrenal androgen production
What are the clinical manifestations of Female Pseudohemaphroditism? Clitoris hypertrophy, partial fusion of the labia majora, and persistent UG sinus
What is the less common cause of Female Pseudohemaphroditism? Progestin administration during pregnancy
What is the cause of almost 50% of ambiguous external genitalia? Female Pseudohemaphroditism
What is the cause of Male Pseudohemaphroditism? Insufficient androgen or production AFTER the critical stages
What is Gartner's cysts? Unobliterated remnants of the mesonephric duct of Epoophorn in the wall of the vagina
What is the Congenital rectovaginal fistula? When the uterine canal abnormally opens into the anorectal dorsal cloaca
What is the cause of congenital rectovaginal fistula? Incomplete development of the urorectal septum
What is a congenital vesicovaginal fistula? Abnormal opening of the uterine canal into the vesiocurethral canal instead of the definitive UG sinus
What is Turner's syndrome? Gonadal dysgenesis No gonadal formation
What is the genetic characteristic of Turners syndrome? 44XO chromosomes Absent Barr body
What is the cause of Turners syndrome? Non-dysjunction in the male gamete during meiosis Most germ cells degenerate after migration --> No gonadal formation
What happens to the reproductive organs in Turners? Paramesonephric ducts and female external genitalia but no further development after birth --> infantile sex characteristics
What is the prevalence of Turners? 2/3000 births
What are the clinical manifestations of Turners/ Short Stature Webbed Neck Broad Chest with wide-spaced nipples Lymphedema of the leg from birth
What are the genetic characteristics of pure gonadal dysgenesis? NO chromosomal abnormalities
What are the causes of pure gonadal dysgenesis? Primordial germ cells do not form or migrate into gonadal area No testes or ovaries develop Absence of androgens and MIF
What is Androgen insensitivity syndrome/Testicular feminization? 44XY with the appearance of a normal female
What are the causes of androgen insensitivity syndrome? The tissues of external genitalia are unresponsive to androgens by testes
What are the characteristics of patients with androgen insensitivity? Testes produce MIF and paramesonephric ducts are supressed Uterine tubes and uterus do not develop Short, blind vagina Testes in the inguinal or labial region NO spermatogenesis
What is the Barr body? An inactivated X chromosome near the nuclear membrane Small mass of chromatin projecting fro the nucleus of Polymorphonuclear leukoocytes in females
What does the presence of the Barr body indicate? Indicates the presence 2X chromosomes, but not necessarily a normal genetic individual Could be XX, XXY, or XXX
When do 2 Barr bodies appear in some nuclei? In XXX individuals
Absence of the Barr body indicates: Male or incomplete female
What are the sources of progesterone and estrogen in pregnancy? CL produces progesterone and estrogen during the first 3-4 months Afterwards the placenta assumes this function
What are the functions of hCG? Saves the CL from degeneration Allows CL to form progesterone, estrogen, and relaxin
When does hCG peak and what is its use clinically? Peaks at 2-3 months, then decreases Is found in urine a few weeks after fertilization --> Pregnancy tests
What are the functions of progesterone and estrogen in pregnancy? 1) Maintain the endometrium 2) Prepare the mammary glands for lactation 3) Prepare the mothers body for birth
What are the levels of progesterone and estrogen in pregnancy? They increase all throughout pregnancy
What are the functions of hCS? 1) Prepare mammary glands for lactation 2) Enhances growth by increased protein synthesis 3) Decreased glucose use and increased fatty acid use for ATP production
What are the functions of Relaxin? 1) Increases flexibility 2) Dilates the uterine cervix during labor
What are the functions of CRH? 1) Establishes timing of birth 2) Increase cortisol secretion --> surfactant production
What are the CRH levels during pregnancy? Secretion begins at 12 weeks
What is the clinical importance of CRH? Increased levels indicate a greater possibility of premature delivery
Created by: Ulaisl