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Unit 7

The Reformation

TermDefinition
indulgences a grant by the Catholic Church that released a person from punishment for sins
simony the selling and buying of positions in the Catholic Church
doctrine a belief or set of beliefs, especially relating to religion
John Wycliffe He he publicly questioned the pope's authority and criticized indulgences and immoral behavior on the part of the clergy. Also believed that the Bible, not the Church, was the supreme source of religious authority.
Jan Hus He agreed with many of Wycliffe's ideas; criticized the vast wealth of the Church; and spoke out against the pope's authority. He believed that the true head of the Church was Jesus Christ and wanted to purify the Church and return it to the people.
Desiderius Erasmus Although he was a humanist, he was also a priest, devoted Catholic, and was one of the most outspoken figures in the call for reform. He argued for a return to simple Christian goodness.
Reformation a religious reform movement from the early 1500s to the 1600s that led to the formation of new Christian groups
Protestant a Christian who separated from the Roman Catholic Church during the Reformation; today, any member of a Christian church founded on the principles of the Reformation
Martin Luther a German priest who broke away from the Catholic Church to start his own religion, Lutheranism. His posting of the Ninety-Five Theses started the Reformation.
Theses an argument, oft en written, to support an idea
Denomination a particular religious group within a larger faith; for example, Lutheranism is one denomination within Christianity.
Huldrych Zwingli He wanted Christians to focus solely on the Bible. He attacked the worship of relics, saints, and images. In the Protestant churches he founded, there were no religious statues or paintings. Services were very simple, without music or singing.
John Calvin He emphasized that salvation came only from God's grace. He said that the “saved” whom God elected, or chose, lived according to strict standards. He believed firmly in hard work and thrift, or the careful use of money.
King Henry VIII His reasons for breaking with the Church were personal and political. On a personal level, he wanted to end his first marriage, but the pope had denied him a divorce. On a political level, he no longer wanted to share power and wealth with the Church.
William Tyndale He attacked corruption in the Catholic Church and defended the English Reformation. He is especially important to the Reformation because of his translations of the Bible.
reform to make change in order to bring about improvement
Lutheranism a Protestant denomination of Christian faith founded by Martin Luther
Calvinism a Protestant denomination of Christian faith founded by John Calvin
Theocracy a government or state in which God is the supreme ruler, and religious officials govern in God’s name
Anglicanism a Protestant denomination of Christian faith founded by Henry VIII in England
Counter-Reformation a movement of the Catholic Church, in reaction to the Reformation, in which Catholic leaders worked to correct abuses, to clarify and defend Catholic teachings, to condemn what they saw as Protestant errors, and to win back members
nationalism the identification with, and devotion to, the interests of one’s nation
Puritans English Protestants who wanted to “purify” the Anglican Church of Catholic elements
Created by: tnutter