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Ch. 21

TermDefinition
Industrial Revolution a period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing and production that began in the mid-1700s.
enclosure movement a process in Europe from 1700s to mid-1800s where landowners fenced small fields to create large farms, allowing for more efficient farming methods and increasing the food supply.
factors of production the basic resources for industrialization, such as land, labor, and capital
cottage industry a usually small-scale industry carried on at home by family members using their own equipment
factory a place where goods are manufactured in mass quantity.
industrialization developing industries for the production of goods
Jethro Tull British inventor; invented the seed drill.
Richard Arkwright English inventor; in 1769 he patented the spinning frame, which spun stronger, thinner, thread
James Watt Scottish inventor; developed crucial innovations to make the steam engine efficient, fast, and better able to power machinery.
Robert Fulton American engineer and inventor; he built the first commercially successful, full-sized steamboat, the Clermont, which led to the development of commercial steamboat ferry services for goods and people.
labor union an organization representing workers' interests
strike a work stoppage
mass production the system of manufacturing large numbers of identical items
interchangeable parts identical machine-made parts that can be substituted for each other in manufacturing
assembly line a mass-production process in which a product is moved forward through many work stations where workers perform specific tasks
laissez-faire a business system where companies are allowed to conduct business without interference by the government
Adam Smith Scottish economist; became the leading advocate pf laissez faire economics and is considered by some to be the "father of modern economics." Wrote the first true text on economics, The Wealth of Nations, in 1776.
Thomas Malthus English economist and sociologist; his theory that population growth would exceed the growth of food population and that poverty would always exist was used to justify low wages and laws restricting charity to the poor.
entrepereneur a risk taker who starts a new business within the economic system of capitalism
Andre Carnegie American industrialist and humanitarian; he led the expansion of the American steel industry in the late 1800s and early 1900s.
socialism a political and economic system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns the means of production.
Karl Marx German social philosopher and chief theorist of modern socialism and communism; declared that as capitalism grew, more and more workers would become impoverished and miserable. Wrote the Communist Manifesto with in 1848, explaining their philosophy
communism economic and political system in which government owns the means of production and controls economic planning.
standard of living a measure of the quality of life
Created by: matthewwells