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World Religions Test

Judaism, Islam, Zoroastrianism, Baha'i, First Nation Spirituality, and Jainism

QuestionAnswer
Is Judaism a religion or a culture or both? Both
What is "Tanakh"? The complete Hebrew Scriptures, comprised of three parts
What is "Talmud"? The collection of rabbinic teachings that governed the Jews during the Medieval period, also oral Torah
What is "Gemara"? A narrative collection that makes up part of the Talmud, printed around the outside
What is "Kabbalah"? Rabbinic teachings that give "secret" meaning to the Hebrew scriptures
What is the "Shema"? A passage in the Torah (Deuteronomy) which begins with "Hear, O Israel" and confirms the unity of God, recited twice daily
What are characteristics of Orthodox Judaism? Rules are absolute, unchanging laws from God
What are characteristics of Conservative Judaism? Laws come from God and change and evolve over time
What are characteristics of Reformed Judaism? Rules are guidelines and you can choose whether or not to follow them
Is Judaism the same as the religion/ faith-life of the Old Testament? No
What does "Islam" mean? "Surrender or submission"
What is the strict name of God for Islam? Allah
What is the basic text of Islam? Qur'an
What role does Muhammed play in the development of Islam? He was a prophet through whom God revealed the Qur'an
What are the "five pillars" of Islam? Profession of faith, five daily prayers, welfare tax (zakat), fasting (during month of Ramadan), pilgrimage to Mecca
Is there a central authority in Islam? No
What is an imam? Religious leader (perfect leader)
What is sharia law? "The path leading to the water place" or "the highway of life leading to God", most offenses punishable by retaliation
Is Islam understood to be a theocracy? What is that? Yes, it is a state governed by God
What are characteristics of Sunni Muslims? Claim head of state must be from Prophet's tribe; embraces toleration; emphasis on divine omnipotence at expense of freedom and efficacy of human free will; nothing exists except God; Muslims must obey even a tyrannical ruler; bigger group
What are characteristics of Shi'ah Muslims? Claim ruler must come from Prophet's family; imam is transformed into manifestation of God, knowledge derived from sources other than imam are useless; freedom of human will and capacity of human reason to know good and evil; allows temporary marriage
What are some of the general experiences of religious life for a Muslim? Weekly Holy Day on Fridays; Sharia law = most important and comprehensive concept of Islam; chastity regarded as of prime importance; prohibition of representation of living creatures in art
Who is the founder of Zoroastrianism? Zarathushtra (Zoroaster)
What are the approximate dates of the founder? 6,000 - 6000 B.C. (Conservative estimates 1,500-1,000 B.C.
Why is this religion studied even though it is so small in adherents? Individuals are born into the religion, converts are not accepted
What is the "Avesta"? Sacred writing comprised of five hymns called Gathas
Who is Ahura Mazda? The one God (in Zoroastrianism)
Who are the Bounteous Immortals? Higher spirits directly under Ahura Mazda
Who is Angra Mainyu? Evil opposition to Ahura Mazda?
Why is fire important in Zoroastrianism? Fire symbolizes God and is used in ceremonies
What is the difference between the Bab and Bahaullah? The Bab founded Baha'i and prohesied the coming of one greater than himself. Ten years later, Bahaullah claimed to be that one and became the leader of the religion
What is the basic teaching of Baha'i? All religions sprang from same spiritual source; belief in unity of all great religions
Why is this religion especially persecuted by Islam? Shi'a Islam contains a prophecy of one who would lead the Shi'ah Muslims to victory; the Bab is claimed to be that leader
How does Baha'i "swallow up" all previous important religious figures? They are all considered prophets
What are basic First Nation beliefs about a deity? Ancient evidence of the concept of a high being; Creator concept; ex nihilo; Great Spirit; symbolized by the Cosmic Pillar (tree of life, continued upholding of the universe)
What are basic First Nation beliefs about Creation? "Earth diver", cosmic spider, emanatistic development, culture hero responsible for societal structure (the trickster, the coyote)
What are basic First Nation beliefs about the after-life? Attitudes toward death range from stoicism to fear and horror); role of culture hero in bringing about death; concepts of soul vary (that which animates the body, that which is separate from the body); varying understanding of the realm of departed souls
What are basic First Nation beliefs about cosmology? Often a mixture of natural and supernatural elements; leveled universe (often three, sometimes more); populated by spirits of varying degrees of care or evil
What is a vision quest? Effort to associate with guardian spirits; may be planned or spontaneous; may be part of becoming a shaman; may involve medicine bundle or intoxicants
What is a shaman? Healer, medicinal + supernatural care, spiritual leader
What is a sweat lodge? Spiritual experience where people enter a sauna-like environment and remain there, purges toxins, connects with nature, spiritual reunion with Creator
What is difficult about studying and generalizing about First Nation spirituality? There is no uniform religion, difficult for outsiders to understand, many refuse to give outsiders accurate information in effort to keep religion pure, many have now left traditional practices
What is the full name of Jainism? Jain Dharma
What is Tirthankara? One who established the four-fold order of religion
What is arahant? One who destroys his inner enemies
What is jina? One who conquers his inner enemies
Who is Mahavir? Most recent jina (last of 24), left family, eventually became a Siddha, organized Jainism
Why are the 24 examples important? 24 Jinas ("those who overcame"), roots of Jainism can be traced back to them, first is believed to be a Jina
Jain Dharma brings together themes from what two large world religions? Hinduism and Buddhism
What is a Siddha? A pure consciousness, a liberated soul
What are the five vows of Jain Dharma? Nonviolence, truthfulness, non-stealing, chastity, non-possession/non-attachment
How are the two groups in Jain Dharma distinguished? In "sky-clad" group, monks don't wear clothing; in "white-clad" group, monks wear white robes, laypeople can wear any clothing
What are characteristic of the Jewish festival of Shavuot? Marks the giving of the Torah on Mt. Sinai. The Ten Commandments are read in synagogues, just as they were in the desert on Mt. Sinai over 3,300 years ago.
What are characteristic of the Jewish festival of Rosh Hashanah? The Jewish New Year. It is the anniversary of the creation of Adam and Eve, and a day of judgment and coronation of G‑d as king.
What are characteristic of the Jewish festival of Yom Kippur? The holiest day on the Jewish calendar, the Day of Atonement
What are characteristic of the Jewish festival of Sukkot? The feast of booths marks the 40 years of wilderness journey out of Egypt
What are characteristic of the Jewish festival of Chanukah? Commemorates the rededication of the Temple in Jerusalem after a group of Jewish warriors defeated the occupying mighty Greek armies
What are characteristic of the Jewish festival of Purim? Celebrates the deliverance of the Jewish people from the wicked Haman in the days of Queen Esther of Persia.
What are characteristic of the Jewish festival of Passover? Celebrates the deliverance of the Jewish people from slavery in Egypt
Created by: marchsh
 

 



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