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India review

Review of Ancient India

The two mountain ranges in India The Himalayas and the Hindu Kush
The triangular peninsular that juts into the Indian Ocean is known as the subcontinent
The river valley that served as the cradle of Indian civilization was the Indus River Valley
a primary feature of India's climate are the seasonal monsoons
There are two monsoons, the _________ which brings warm moist air from the southwest bringing heavy rains and the _________ which blows cold dry air from the Northeast summer, winter
The cities of the Harrappan or Indus civilization were well planned meaning that they were well organized
The Harrappan rulers based their power on divine assistance which means there government was a theocracy
The Indus river valley was invaded over the centuries by light skinned Indo-Europeans from the Black and Caspian sea area who were known as the Aryans
the Aryans were pastoral nomadic which means they were herders, loosely organized, who moved between pastures
The Aryans were led by chiefs known as Rajah's
The basis of the Aryans economy was ___________ which were the basis of their diet but also was used as money cattle
In the Aryan world Men ___________ and accepted no challenge to their authority dominated
Aryans had no written language but did have a spoken language called Sanskrit
Aryans sang long poems about their heroes called epics
The basis of Aryan beliefs was collected into a group of books, known as the books of knowledge or the Vedas
one of the oldest religious texts still in use is the Rig-veda
The Aryans developed a caste system with four social classes known as the Varnas
The social classes in the Varnas were the -Kshatriyas (warriors) who originally were at the top, the Brahmans (priests), the Vaisyas (middle class) and the Sudras (unskilled)
Only the Brahmans or priests could teach the vedas
The Varnas was very rigid and was divided into smaller groups called Jati
Jati were formed according to ___________ and each had its own rules living separately from other Jati occupation
Europeans renamed this system the ________ system Caste
There is no actual definition for the Caste System, all in system were ranked, could not intermarry and could not _________ their group change
there were people who did jobs such as tanning that were considered unclean and they were called untouchables or pariah
In Ancient India the family was the center of life and it was patriarchal which means oldest male held legal authority over he entire family unit
The indians each had a concept of duty which was called dharma
_________ developed out of Aryan beliefs and was polytheistic Hinduism
The three main gods of hinduism were Brahma (the creator), Vishnu (the preserver), and _____ (the destroyer) Siva
Hinduism looking for a single religious truth reflected in religious writings known as Upanishads
Hinduism believes that the universal spirit lives within all living things and all are part of one eternal spirit known as the Brahman Nerguna
is the belief that soul passes through many lifetimes before it finally achieves union with the universal spirit reincarnation
principle that how a person lives their life determines what form the person will take in the next life karma
requires believer to protect humans, animals and even insects Ahimsa
the final release from the pain and suffering of rebirth after rebirth moksha
Buddhism founded by the 'enlightened one' -Siddhartha Gautama who was known as the Buddha
Buddha developed a new philosophy which told all how to live life, Buddha followed the four noble truths which included the eightfold path, if all were followed successfuly one could expect to reach Nirvana
Buddha rejected the _________ (social class)system of Hinduism Varnas
There were two Indian dynasties during the history of India, the Mauryan and the Gupta
the greatest leader of the Mauryan dynasty was _________ a warrior who accepted Buddhism and became a man of peace was Asoka
The gupta dynasty achievements included -Math – major advances in developing the principle of Algebra, - Astronomers knew the earth was round and in _________ were doctors set bones, performed operations and invented hundreds of medical instruments medicine
______________ _________ began the first dynasy in India by overthrowing the Magadhan King and proclaiming himself ruler Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya Highly developed a highly centralized government which was divided into __________ each ruled by a governor provinces
_________ succeeded Chandragupta Maurya Asoka
At one fierce battle horrified at what he saw, Asoka swore never to rule again by force and terror and renounced war and began to follow the teachngs of __________ Buddha
Asoka put laws into local languages rather than Sanskrit and carved the laws on rocks and on tall stone pillars and they were called the Rock Edicts
_______________________ was the first emperor of the Gupta Dynasty, he was not related the the first emperor of the Gupta dynasty Chandragupta I
During this dynasty there were major advances in the development of Math Gupta
During the Gupta dynasty many advances were made, the Guptans developed the concept of _______ and developed the symbols that became known as Arabic numerals Zero
In the area of medicine , the Indian doctors set bones, performed operations and invented hundreds of _____________ ____________ medical Instruments
Created by: pattone