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AP Human Geography

Chapter 10,11

Development the process of improving the conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
developed country a very highly developed country that has progressed further along the development continuum
developing country an LDC or less developed country that has made some progress toward development through less than developed countries.
HDI - Human Development Index Highest possible is 1.0, based on 3 factors; A decent standard of living, A long and healthy life, and access to knowledge
GNI - Gross National Income The value of output of goods and services produced in a country in a year including money that enters and leaves the country.
PPP - Purchasing power parity an adjustment to the GNI to account for differences among countries in the cost of goods
Primary Sector Activities that directly extract materials from Earth through agriculture and sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry
Secondary Sector Includes manufacturers that process, transform, and assemble raw materials into useful products as well as industries that fabricate manufactured goods into finished consumer goods
Tertiary Sector involves the provision of goods and services to people in exchange for payment, such as retailing, banking, law, education, and government
Productivity the value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it
Value Added the gross value of a product minus the costs of raw materials and energy
GDP - Gross Domestic Product the value of the output of goods and services produced in a country in a year does not account for money that enters and leaves the country
pupil/teacher ratio the number of enrolled students divided by the number of teachers.
Literacy rate the percentage of a country's people who can read and write
IHDI - Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index Modifies the HDI to account for inequality in a country. Under perfect equality the HDI and IHDI are the same
GDI - Gender-related Development Index measures the gender gap in the level of achievement for the three dimensions of the HDI. The GDI is 1.0 if males and females have the same HDI score
GII - Gender Inequality Index measures the gender gap in the level of achievement in three dimensions (reproductive health, empowerment, and the labor market.
Female labor force participation rate the percentage of women holding full-time jobs outside the home
maternal mortality rate the number of women who die giving birth per 100,000 births
adolescent fertility rate the number of births per 1000 women ages 15 to 19
FDI - foreign direct investment Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country
Structural adjustment program contains economic reforms or adjustments such as economic goals, strategies for achieving the objectives, and external financing requirements.
microfinance A provision of small loans and other financial services to individuals and small businesses in developing countries that are unable to obtain loans from commercial banks
Fair Trade international trade that provides greater equality to workers, small businesses, and consumers.
cooperative store a member-owned, member-governed business that operates for the benefit of its members according to common principles agreed upon by the international cooperative community
Cottage Industry Home-based manufacturing
animate power power supplied by animals or by people themselves
biomass fuel wood, plant material, or animal waste that is burned directly or converted to charcoal, alcohol, or methane gas.
fossil fuel an energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago.
bulk-reducing industry an industry in which the inputs weigh more than the final products
bulk-gaining industry makes something that gains volume or weight during production
break-of-bulk point a location where transfer among transportation modes is possible
just-in-time delivery is shipment of parts and materials to arrive at a factory moments before they are actually needed
labor-intensive industry an industry in which wages and other compensation paid to employees constitute a high percentage of expenses.
proven reserve The supply of energy remaining in deposits that have been discovered
potential reserve The supply in deposits that are undiscovered but though to exist is a potential reserve
fisiion A nuclear power plant produces electricity from energy re-leased by splitting uranium atoms in a controlled environment, a process called fission.
fusion The process of fusing hydrogen atoms to form helium
Nonrenewable energy resources form so slowly that for practical purposes, they cannot be renewed.
Renewable Energy resources have an essentially unlimited supply and are not depleted when used by people.
geothermal energy energy from hot water or steam
Passive solar energy systems capture energy without using special devices.
Active Solar energy systems collect solar energy and convert it either to heat energy or to electricity
Pollution more waste is added than air, water, and land resources can handle.
Air pollution is a concentration of trace substances at a greater level than occurs in average air.
greenhouse effect THe increase in Earth's temperature, caused by carbon dioxide trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface, is called the greenhouse effect.
ozone a gas that absorbs ultraviolet radiation in the stratosphere
Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs Earth protective layer is threatened by pollutants under this name
Acid deposition the accumulation of acids on earth's surface
Acid precipitation the conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides too acids that return to Earth as rain, snow, or fog.
photo chemical smog Hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in the presence of sunlight form this
biochemical oxygen demand BOD the amount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose a given amount of organic waste.
Point source pollution enters a body of water at a specific location
Nonpoint source pollution comes from a large diffuse area
sanitary landfill the most common place for disposal of solid waste in the United States
new international division of labor The selective transfer of some jobs to developing countries
outsourcing turning over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers
vertical integration a company controls all phases of a highly complex production process.
maquiladoras plants in mexico near the U.S. border (motor vehicles)
right-to-work law requires a factory to maintain a open shop and prohibits a closed shop
Fordist production where factories assign each worker one specific task to perform repeatedly
post-Fordist production People work in teams and told to figure things out for themselves, A problem is addressed with a consensus. Facotry workers are treated alike and higher ups dont get special treatment. THey have
Recycling the separation, collection, processing, marketing, and reuse of unwanted material.
Remanufacturing the rebuilding of a product to specifications of the original manufactured product using a combination of reused, repaired, and new parts
Created by: DaRealJuanCena
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