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Day class mine

Chapter nine

QuestionAnswer
The cells of the body depend on ? A steady supply of oxygen and nutrients to carry out their normal Metabolic functions
Cells also depend on ? A means of disposing metabolic waste products To maintain a balanced internal environment
How is blood pumped ? By the heart threw the arteries , veins and capillaries
What is blood composed of ? A straw colored fluid called plasma.
Composition of the blood Plasma 90% h20 Plasma is essential for transporting the cellular elements (solid components) of blood throughout the circulatory system
Remaining portion of the blood is called? Solutes
plasma proteins, are grouped into three major classes: albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen .
Why do Albumins help maintain the normal blood volume and blood pressure . Because of their abundance, albumins attract water into the vessels through the capillaries by osmosis
Osmosis 1 (fluid flows from a lesser concentration of solute to a greater concentration of solute) . When this happens, the balance between the fluid in the blood and the fluid in the interstitial tissues is maintained; the fluid will remain in the blood vessels
What will happen if the balance (osmotic pressure) is upset ? If this balance (osmotic pressure) is upset, the fluid will leave the blood vessels, seep into the surrounding tissue spaces, and result in swelling of the tissues (edema) .
Osmosis 2 Osmosis produces balance between the fluid in the blood and the fluid in the interstitial tissue keeping it maintained
What does the Osmotic pressure do ? Keeps the fluid to remain in the blood vessels and will not leak out into surrounding tissues
Solutes (substances dissolved in a solution): electrolytes, proteins, fats, glucose, bilirubin, and gases . The most abundant of the solutes are the plasma proteins
What is the most abundant solute ? Plasma proteins
Solute /plasma protein albumins approx 60% Maintain normal blood pressure and blood volume They attract water into the vessels threw the capillaries
Solute/ plasma protein globulin approx 36% There are 3 types of globulins Alpha Beta Gamma
Purpose of alpha and beta solute globulins ? Primary functions are to transport lipids and fat - soluble vitamins In the blood
Purpose of the gamma solute plasma proteins ? They are antibodies that function in the immunity
4 categories of the gamma immunoglobulin IGG /past infection( titers) IGM / current infections ( active) IGE / allergies IGA / digestive track
What are antibodies ? Antibodies combine chemically with substances that the body recognizes As alien Bacteria/viruses/foreign substance in the blood
Fibrinogen constitutes approximately 4% of the plasma proteins It is the largest of the plasma proteins . Fibrinogen is essential in the process of blood clotting .
solid components of the blood are the formed elements, the cells and cell frag- ments, suspended in the plasma .
hemopoiesis Is ? The production of the formed elements in the blood
What are hemocytoblasts? After birth, most of the production of blood cells occurs in the red bone marrow in specific regions of the body (skull, sternum, ribs, vertebrae, pelvis), with all types of blood cells developing from undifferentiated (unspecialized) stem cells
These seven lines of specialized cells are grouped into three classifications erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes .
differentiation the blood cells develop from the hemocytoblast stage and undergo differentiation or become specialized in function, they mature into one of seven cell lines—with each cell line having a different purpose .
erythrocyte is a tiny biconcave-shaped disk that is thinner in the center than around the edges . They are also known as red blood cells (RBCs) .
Mature red blood cells Do not have a nucleus /they are anucleate Live approx 120 days
What is the main component of the red blood cell ? hemoglobin
hemoglobin consists of heme (iron) and globin (protein) .
oxyhemoglobin The biconcave shape of the red blood cell provides a maximum surface area for the bonding of oxygen to the hemoglobin to form oxyhemoglobin
primary function of the red blood cell is to ? transport oxygen to the cells of the body . Once the oxygen has been released to the cells, the biconcave shape of the red blood cell enables it to absorb carbon dioxide (a waste product of cellular metabolism)
What are the most numerous of the formed elements in the blood .? erythrocytes
What are Leukocytes ? Leukocytes are larger than erythrocytes but are fewer in number . They are also called white blood cells (WBCs)
A mature leukocyte does not lose its nucleus, and it does not possess hemoglobin
Leukocytes (five types) are grouped into two categories: granulocytes and agranulocytes .
Granulocytes consist of ? neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils .
Granulocytes have granules in their cytoplasm that absorb various dyes (as when prepared for a slide for viewing under a microscope) . The various colors, as well as the shapes of the nuclei, help identify the different white blood cells under the microscope
(2) neutrophils constitute approx- imately 60% to 70% of all WBC Neutrophils are phagocytic in nature; that is, they respond to infections and tissue damage by engulfing and destroying bacteria
(3) eosinophils constitute approximately 2% to 4% of all white blood cells (3) eosinophils constitute approximately 2% to 4% of all white blood cells . They have a nucleus with two lobes . Eosinophils increase in number in response to allergic reactions .
(4) basophils constitute less than 1% of all white blood cells . They have a nucleus with two lobes . Basophils secrete histamine (released during allergic reactions) and heparin, which is a natural anticoagulant (prevents clotting) .
Agranulocytes consist of ? monocytes and lymphocytes . They do not have granules in their cytoplasm
5 monocytes They are the largest of the white blood cells and have a kidney bean–shaped nucleus . Monocytes are phagocytic in nature
The (6) lymphocytes constitute approximately 20% to 25% of all white blood cells . . They have a large, spherical-shaped nucleus . Lymphocytes play an important role in the immune process: some lymphocytes are phagocytic in that they attack the bacteria directly, whereas other lymphocytes produce antibodies that destroy bacteria .
(7) thrombocyte (also known as a platelet) is a small, disk-shaped fragment of a very large cell called megakaryocyte . Platelets contain no hemoglobin . They are essential for the normal clotting (coagulation) of blood
What is the largest artery ? Aorta / arteries carry oxygenated blood AWAY from the heart Aorta very thick /wide and large
How many types of blood do we have ? 3 /RBC/ WBC/ platelets
What is the difference between veinupucture & phlebotomy ? Veinupucture -pucture of the vein Phlembotomy -incision of vein
What does permeable mean ? Fluid can pass threw ex. Inhale/ exhale
What is the purpose of the RBC ? Carry oxygen threw the body and rid co2 wastes
What are formed elements ? Blood cells RBC WBC Platelets (in plasma)
Hematology is ? The study of blood and blood forming tissues
Arteries Carry blood away from the heart Highly oxygenated vessels ( from lungs)
Arteries why low volume/high pressure system ? Because it is traveling from the heart Arteries also have a pulse
The arteries branch off into ? Smaller vessels called arterioles Ole/ small minute And capillaries
Arteries have a thicker elastic walls then ? Veins Arteries have no valve - LV / HP system
Veins carry ? Deoxygenated blood TOWARD the heart by veins
Do veins have valves? Yes to prevent back flow and to aid in return blood flow to the heart
Veins branch off into smaller veins called... Venules and capillaries
Veins carry both ? Deoxygenated and oxygenated. Blood
Veins are more elastic so hence Large volume / low pressure Veins have thinner walls then arteries
Capillaries are ? Tiny microscopic vessels that connect or serve as a bridge Between arterioles ( smaller arteries) and venules ( small veins) So small that only one blood cell may pass at any given time
Blood in the capillary bed is ? A mixture of arterial and venous blood Also deoxygenated and oxygenated blood
Capillaries Are permeable
Blood Life giving fluid of the body Avg adult 8-10 pints (5-6 liters) 2/3 of our blood is In are veins at all times
Two parts of blood Plasma Formed elements
Created by: Tbella