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caravel a sailing vessel that uses square and triangular sails to help it sail against the wind
Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) Prince of Portugal and patron of exploration; he made no voyages himself but spent his life directing voyages of discovery along the African coast.
Vasco de Gama (c. 1469-1524) Portuguese navigator; in 1497-1499, he became the first European to sail around Africa and reach India by sea.
Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) Italian explorer, sailing for Spain, who reached the Americas in 1492 while searching for a western sea route from Europe to Asia.
Ferdinand Magellan (c. 1480-1521) Portuguese navigator;his ships were the first to circumnavigate the globe, though he died on the journey back.
circumnavigate to proceed completely around
Sir Francis Drake (c. 1540-1596) English admiral; he rounded the tip of South America and explored the west coast. He ended up heading west to return to England, thus becoming the second man to circumnavigate the globe.
Henry Hudson (died 1611) English navigator; he sailed from the Dutch East India Company and discovered the Hudson River in present-day New York.
encomienda Spanish colonial system in which a colonist was given a certain amount of land and a number of Native Americans to work the land in exchange for teaching the Native Americans Christianity
Hernán Cortés (1485-1547) Spanish conquistador; from 1519 to 1521, he defeated the Aztec Empire, conquering Mexico for Spain.
conquistador a Spanish soldier and explorer who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain
Moctezuma ll (1466-1520) Aztec ruler from 1502 to 1520; he was emperor of the Aztecs when Cortés and his army conquered the empire. He was taken prisoner and killed during battle with the Spanish army.
Francisco Pizarro (c. 1476-1541) Spanish conquistador, conqueror of Peru; founder of Lima, Peru. From 1530 to 1533, he conquered the Inca Empire.
Atahualpa (c. 1502-1533) Last Inca king; he was taken prisoner by Pizarro and his army after refusing to accept Christianity and surrender his empire to Spanish conquistadors. He was killed by the Spanish and his empire was taken over.
viceroys officials who ruled Spain's American empire
Bartolomé de Las Casas (1474-1566) Spanish missionary and historian; he sought to protect Native Americans from Spanish mistreatment by replacing them as laborers with imported African slaves.
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) the agreement between Spain and Portugal that created an imaginary north-south line dividing their territory in the Americas
Columbian Exchange the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Europe, Asia, and Africa beginning with the voyages of Columbus
mercantilism an economic system used from about the 1500's to the 1700's that held that a nation's power was directly related to its wealth
balance of trade the difference in value between what a nation imports and exports over a period of time
subsidies grants of money
capitalism economic system in which most businesses are privately owned
joint-stock companies businesses formed by groups of people who jointly make an investment and share in the profits and losses
plantations large farms that usually specialized in the growing of one type of crop for a profit
triangular trade trading network lasting from the 1600's to the 1800's that carried goods and enslaved people between Europe, the Americas, and Africa
Middle Passage the name for voyages that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
Olaudah Equiano (c. 1750-1793) African American abolitionist; he was an enslaved African who was eventually freed, became leader of the abolitionist movement, and wrote The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano.
African Diaspora the dispersal of people of African descent throughout the Americas and Western Europe due to slave trade
Created by: nicoletterojas