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Chp.16 - Exploration

Term / Definition

caravel a sailing vessel that uses square and triangular sails to help it sail against the wind.
Henry the Navigator prince of Portugal and patron of exploration; he made no voyages himself but spent his life directing voyages of discovery along the African coast.
Vasco da Gama Portuguese navigator; in 1497-1499, he became the first European to sail around Africa and reach India by sea.
Christopher Columbus Italian explorer, sailing for Spain, who reached the Americans in 1492 while searching for Western sea route from Europe to Asia.
circumnavigate to proceed completely around.
Sir Francis Drake English admiral ; he rounded the tip of South America and explored the west coast. He ended up heading west to return to England, thus becoming the 2nd man to circumnavigate the globe.
Henry Hudson English navigator; he sailed for the Dutch East India Company and discovered the Hudson River in present-day New York.
encomienda Spanish colonial system in which colonist was given a certain amount of land and a number of Native Americans to work the land in exchange for teaching the Native Americans.
Hernan Cortes Spanish conquistador; from 1519 to 1521, he defeated the Aztec Empire, conquering Mexico for Spain.
conquistador a Spanish solider and explorer who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain. the
Moctezuma ll Aztec ruler from 1502 to 1520; he was the emperor of the Aztecs when Cortes and his army conquered the empire =. He was taken prisoner and killed during battle with the Spanish army.
Francisco Pizarro Spanish conquistador, conqueror of Peru; founder of Lima, Peru. From 1530 to 1533, he conquered the Inca Empire.
Atahualpa last Inca king; he was taken prisoner by Pizarro and his army after refusing to accept Christianity and surrender his empire to Spanish conquistadors. He was killed by the Spanish and his empire was taken over.
viceroys officials who ruled Spain's American empire.
Bartolome de Las Casas a priest who was seeking to protect the Native Americans; he also wanted to to replace the laborers with imported African slaves.
Treaty of Tordesillas the agreement between Spain and Portugal that created an imaginary north-south line dividing their territory in the Americas.
Columbian Exchange the transfer of plants, animals and diseases between the Americas, Europe, Asia and Africa beginning with the voyages of Columbus.
mercantilism an economic system used from about the 1500's to the 1700's that held that a nation's powers was directly related to it;s wealth.
balance of trade the difference in value between what a nation imports and exports over a period of time.
subsidies the grants of money.
capitalism economic system in which most businesses are privately owned.
joint-stock companies businesses formed by groups of people who jointly make an investment and share in profits and loses.
plantations large farms usually specialized in the growing of one type of crop for a profit.
triangular trade trading network that lasting from 1600's to the 1800's that carried goods and enslaved people between Europe, the Americas and Africa.
Middle Passage the name for voyages that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies.
Olaudah Equiano African American abolitionist; he was an enslaved African who was eventually freed, he became a leader of the abolitionist movement and wrote " The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano"
African Diaspora the dispersal of people of African descent throughout the Americans and westerns Europe due to the slave trade.
Ferdinand Magellan Portuguese navigator; his ships were thee 1st t circumnavigate the globe, even though he died on the journey.
Created by: kaileepetty