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Chapter16:Exporation

Chapter 16: Exploration and Expansion

TermDefinition
Caravel A sailing vessel that uses square and triangular sails to help it sail against the wind.
Henry the Navigator Prince of Portugal and patron of exploration; he made no voyages himself but spent his life directing voyages of discovery along the African coast.
Vasco da Gama Portuguese navigator; in 1497-1499, he became the first European to sail around Africa and reach India by sea.
Christopher Columbus Italian explorer, sailing for Spain, who reached the Americas in 1492 while searching for a western sea route from Europe to Asia.
Ferdinand Magellan Portuguese navigator; his ships were the first to circumnavigate the globe, though he died on the journey.
Circumnavigate To proceed completely around.
Sir Francis Drake English admiral; he rounded the tip of South America and explored the west coast. HE ended up heading west to return to England, thus becoming the second man to circumnavigate the globe.
Henry Hudson English navigator; he sailed for the Dutch East Indian Company and discovered the Hudson river in present-day New York.
Encomienda Spanish colonial system in which a colonist was given a certain amount of land and a number of Native Americans to work the land in exchange for teaching the Native Americans Christianity.
Hernan Cortes Spanish conquistador; from 1519-1521, he defeated the Aztec Empire, conquering Mexico for Spain.
Conquistador A Spanish soldier and explorer who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain.
Moctezuma II Aztec ruler from 1502-1520; he was the emperor of the Aztecs when Cortes and his army conquered the empire. He was taken prisoner and killed during battle with the Spanish army.
Francisco Pizarro Spanish conquistador, conqueror of Peru,; founder of Lima, Peru. From 1530-1533, he conquered the Inca Empire.
Atahualpa Last Inca king; he was taken prisoner by Pizarro and his army after refusing to accept Christianity and surrender his empire to Spanish conquistadors. HE was killed by the Spanish and his empire was taken over.
Viceroys Officials who ruled Spain's American empire.
Bartolome da Las Casas Spanish missionary and historian; he sought to protect Native Americans from Spanish mistreatment by replacing them as laborers with imported African slaves.
Columbian Exchange The transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Europe, Asia, and Africa beginning with the voyages of Columbus.
Mercantilism An economic system used from about the 1500s to the 1700s that held a nation's power was directly related to its wealth.
Balance of Trade The difference in value between what a nation imports and exports over a period of time.
Subsidies Grant of money.
Captialism Economic system in which most businesses are privately owned.
Joint-Stock Compainies Businesses formed by groups of people who jointly make an investment and share in the profit and losses.
Plantations Large farms that usually specialized in the growing of one crop for a profit.
Triangular Trade Trading network lasting from the 1600s to the 1800s that carried goods and enslaved people between Europe, the Americas, and Africa.
Middle Passage The name for voyages that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies.
Olaudah Equiano African American abolitionist; he was an enslaved African who was eventually freed, became a leader of the abolitionist movement, and wrote "The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano."
African Dispora The dispersal of people of African descent throughout the Americas and Western Europe due to the slave trade.
Treaty of Tordesillas The agreement between Spain and Portugal that created an imaginary north-south line dividing their territory in the Americas.
Created by: MaKayla Gierke