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WRLDCV CH12 2018

Mr. Stickler's Liberty Christian WRLD CIV Chap. 12 Flashcards 2018

What are the 3 characteristics of the Italian Renaissance? 1.) A largely urban society; 2.) Recovery from disasters of the 14th century (ex: the Plague); 3.) Emphasis on individual ability. (Pg. 398)
Another word for "secular" is _____________________. Another word for this is "worldly". (Pg. 398)
What were the three (3) main Italian city states where the Renaissance began? These three (3) city states were: 1.) Milan; 2.) Venice; 3.) Florence. (Pg. 399)
What does the term "mercenaries" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "soldiers who sold their services to the highest bidder". (Pg. 400)
List the two (2) social groups that made up Renaissance society in order from highest (i.e. people with the most power) to lowest (i.e. people with the least power). 1.) Nobles; 2.) Peasants; 3.) Townspeople. (Pg. 402)
What does the term "dowry" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a sum of money that the wife's family gave to the husband upon marriage". (Pg. 403)
Why were Italian city-states so prosperous? These city-states were so prosperous due to flourishing trade and profit from the Crusades. (Pg. 403)
What role did peasants play in the economies of towns? Peasants brought goods from the countryside to sell in the town markets. (Pgs. 404 & 405)
What does the term "Humanism" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "an intellectual movement of the Renaissance based on the study of the humanities, which included grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy, and history". (Pg. 406)
How did the education of females differ from that of males in Humanist schools? Their education differed in that females were largely excluded from schooling. A few females attended but they were not taught mathematics or rhetoric. Instead, religion & morals for roles as wives & mothers were taught.
How was Humanism reflected in the works of Renaissance artists? These artists created works of art that was more human-centered and reflected the influence of ancient Greek and Roman styles.
What was the focus of Christian Humanism? The focus of this movement was on reformation of the Catholic Church. (Pg. 412)
What was one (1) of the basic beliefs of Christian Humanists? One (1) of their basic beliefs was that human beings had the ability to reason and improve themselves. (Pg. 412)
What does the term "indulgence" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a release from all or part of the punishment for sin". (This was usually granted by priests in the Catholic Church in some situations.) (Pg. 415)
What was the "Ninety-Five Theses"? This was the name given to the list of complaints against the Catholic Church that Martin Luther wrote and nailed to the doors of Catholic Churches in October, 1517. (Pg. 415)
What was the Edict of Worms? This was a decree issued by The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V banning the writings of Martin Luther and labeling him a heretic and enemy of the state in May, 1521. (Pg. 415)
What is Lutheranism? This was the name of the "first Protestant faith". (Pg. 416)
What was the Peace of Augsburg? This was an agreement that formally accepted the division of Christianity in Germany in 1555. (Pg. 417)
How did the views of Erasmus and the Church differ on the topic of religious relics? The Catholic Church said that a person could gain an indulgence by venerating religious relics. Erasmus said that external forms of religious expression like relics was far less important than inward religious feelings.
What does the term "predestination" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the idea that God had determined in advance who would be saved and who would end up in Hell when they died. (Pg. 419)
What does the term "annul" mean/ refer to? This term means to "declare invalid". (Pg. 420)
How did John Calvin reform the city of Geneva? Calvin created church government that used both clergy and laity. he set up Consistory ("a church council or court") to oversee moral life and "doctrinal purity"; and he trained missionaries and sent them to all parts of Europe. (Pg. 423)
Why did King Henry VIII (8th) form the Church of England? King Henry VIII (8th) did this because the Catholic Church refused to grant him a divorce from his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. (Pg. 420)
Why did King Henry VIII (8th) want to marry Anne Boleyn? He wanted to marry her because his first wife, Catherine of Aragon had not given him a son. That meant that he still had to male heir who could take over as king after his death.
"In his introduction to the Ninety-Five Theses, what did Martin Luther invite people to do?" He invited people to debate his proposition in person, or to debate with letters. (Pg. 416)
List three (3) things that the Catholic Reformation brought about, which revitalized the Catholic Church. 1. Jesuit missionaries successfully restored Catholicism to parts of Germany & eastern Europe; 2. The papacy (i.e. the office of the pope) was drastically reformed; 3. A Reform Commission was appointed (1537) to "determine the Church's ills". (Pg. 423)
Who was Ignatius of Loyola and why was he important to the Catholic Reformation? He founded the Society of Jesuits. They used education to spread their message and helped to restore Catholicism to parts of Germany and eastern Europe. (Pg. 423)
What did Renaissance era philosopher Niccolo Machiavelli think about human nature? He thought that people were self-centered by nature. He said that rulers should act "without moral restrictions" for "the sake of the state".
Who was known as the "Father of Italian Renaissance humanism"? Petrarch was called this.
Created by: sticklerpjpII