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Ch. 15

TermDefinition
Renaissance "rebirth"; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome.
humanism an intellectual movement during the Renaissance that focused on the study of worldly subjects, such as poetry and philosophy, and on human potential and achievements.
secular Having to do with worldly, as opposed to religious, matters.
Baldassare Castiglione Italian diplomat and writer; he wrote The Courtier, one of the most important books of the Renaissance, in which he delineates the rules and correct behaviors for a courtier to adopt in order to win favor from a ruler.
Nicolo Machiaveli Italian political philosopher and statesman; he wrote The Prince; which advised rulers to separate morals from politics.
Lorenzo de Medici Florentine ruler; he supported some of the most talented Renaissance artists. He was known for his patronage and liberal mind.
Leonardo da Vinci Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musicians, engineer, and scientist; his interests and talents spanned numerous disciplines.
Michelangelo Buonarroti Italian Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet; he sculpted the Pieta and the David, and he painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
Raphael Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens.
Johannes Gutenberg German inventor and printer; he invented movable type. His first printed publication was a 1,282-page Bible.
Desiderius Erasmus Dutch priest and humanist; he wrote on the need for a pure and simple Christian life. To his regret, his writings fanned the flames of discontent with the Roman Catholic Church.
Sir Thomas More English statesman and author; he wrote utopia, which describes an ideal society.
William Shakespeare English dramatist and poet; he is considered one of the greatest dramatists of all time and wrote such works as Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and A Midsummer Night's Dream.
Christine de Pisan French poet and author; her work The City of Women discusses the role of women in society. She championed the causes of equality and education for women.
Albrecht Duer German painter, engraver, and theoretician; he combined Italian Renaissance techniques of realism and perspective with elements unique to the northern Renaissance, such as the use of oils in his paintings.
Jan van Eyck Flemish painter; his paintings focused on landscapes and domestic life and fused the everyday with the religious.
Protestant Reformation a religious movement in the 1500s that split the Christian church in western Europe and led to the establishment of a number of new churches.
indulgences pardons issued by the pope of the Roman Catholic Church that could reduce a soul's time in purgatory; from the 1100s to 1500s, could be purchased, which led to corruption
Martin Luther German monk whose protests against the Catholic Church in 1517 (the Ninety-Five Theses) led to calls for reform and to the movement known as the Reformation.
theocracy a government ruled by religious leaders who claim God's authority.
John Calvin French Protestant theologian of the Reformation; he founded Calvinism, which was associated with the doctrine of predestination.
predestination the belief that at the beginning of time God decided who would gain salvation.
Henry VIII King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism.
annulled declared invalid based on church laws
Elizabeth I Queen of England from 1558 to 1603; a skillful politician and diplomat, she reasserted Protestant supremacy in England.
Counter-Reformation The Catholic Church's series of reforms in response to the spread of Protestantism in the mid-1500s to the early 1600s.
Jesuits members of a Catholic religious order, the Society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534.
Ignatius of Loyola Spanish churchman and founder of the Jesuits; this order of Roman Catholic priests proved an effective force for reviving Catholicism during the Catholic Reformation.
Council of Trent a meeting of church leaders in the 1500s whose purpose was to clearly define Catholic doctrines for the Catholic Reformation.
Charles Borromeo Archbishop of Milan from 1560 to 1584; he took steps to implement the reforms ordered by the Council of Trent.
Francis of Sales French Roman Catholic leader and preacher; he worked to win back the district of Savoy, in France from Calvinism.
Teresa of Avila Spanish Carmelite nun and one of the principal saints of the Roman Catholic Church; she reformed the Carmelite order.
Created by: matthewwells