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Med Term CH9

Med Term CH9 The Urinary System

-cele hernia, tumor, swelling
cyst/o urinary bladder, cyst, sac or fluid
dia- through, between, apart, complete
-ectasis stretching, dilation, enlargement
glomerul/o glomerulus
lith/o stone, calculus
-lysis breakdown, separation, setting free, destruction, loosening
nephr/o kidney
-pexy surgical fixation
pyel/o renal pelvis, bowl of kidney
-tripsy to crush
ur/o urine, urinary tract
ureter/o ureter
urethr/o urethra
-uria urination, urine
homeostasis the process through which the body maintains a constant internal environment.
home/o constant
-stasis control
functions of homeostasis maintains proper balance of water, salts, & acids by filtering blood as flows through kidneys.
what is removed during homeostasis blood filtering removes urea, creatinine, uric acid, and other waste materials from bloodstream & excess fluids into urine for excretion
urea major waste product of protein metabolism
creatinine waste product of muscle metabolism
urinary tract aka urinary system: 2 kidneys, 2 ureters, 1 bladder, 1 urethra
where are adrenal glands & which system to they belong? on top of the kidneys, endocrine system
urinary tract and reproductive organs when referred together genitourinary tract
kidneys filter blood to remove waste & excess water. Maintain proper level of fluid, produce hormones that control blood pressure & make RBC's, activate vit D to maintain healthy bones
amount of blood processed by kidneys daily 200 quarts, which produces an avg of 2 quarts of urine
renal pertaining to the kidneys
ren kidney
shape of kidneys bean
where are kidneys located retroperitoneal space, 1 on each side of vertebral column below diaphragm & lower edge of rib cage.
retroperitoneal behind the peritoneum, which is the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity
renal cortex outer region of the kidney. Layer of tissue that contains more than 1 mil microscopic units called nephrons.
cortex outer portion of an organ
medulla inner region of the kidney, contains most of the urine-collecting tubules
tubules small tube
nephrons microscopic functional units of ea kidney. Urine is produced here through processes of filtration, reabsorbtion, & secretion.
reabsorbtion return to the blood of some of the substances that were removed during filtration
glomerulus contained in each nephron; cluster of capillaries surrounded by cup-shaped membrane called Bowman's capsule & a renal tube
where blood enters the kidney through the renal artery & flows into the nephrons
nephron & associated structures Bowman's capsule, glomerulus, efferent arteriole, afferent arteriole, renal tubules, renal artery, renal vein, collecting duct, peritubular capillaries
renal vein after passing through glomerulus, filtered blood containing protein & blood cells leaves kidney & returns to bloodstream through this
where does remaining filtrate flow after filtered blood leaves kidney? flows into renal tubules, where elements, including some water, sugar, & salts, are returned to bloodstream via nearby capillary
what happens if waste products cannot be efficiently removed from the bloodstream? body cannot maintain homeostasis
renal pelvis description/ location funnel-shaped area inside each kidney that is surrounded by the renal cortex & medulla.
what happens in the renal pelvis? newly formed urine from the nephrons collects here before it flows into the ureters.
ureters 2 narrow tubes, ea 10-12" long, transport urine from kidney to bladder.
peristalsis series of wave-like contractions, moves urine down each ureter to bladder
ureteral orifices urine drains from the ureters into the bladder through these, located in the wall of the urinary bladder
orifice opening
urinary bladder oval, hollow, muscular organ that is a reservoir for urine before it is excreted from body
where is the urinary bladder anterior portion of the pelvic cavity behind the pubic symphysis.
how much urine can average adult bladder hold? more than 1 pint
rugae like stomach, bladder lined with these folds that allow it to expand when full & contract when empty
urethra tube extending from bladder to exterior of body
urinary sphincters 2, one @ each end of urethra. Muscular rings that control flow of urine from bladder into urethra & out the urethral meatus
sphincter ring-like muscle that closes a passageway
urethral meatus aka urinary meatus; external opening of the urethra
meatus external opening of a canal
female urethra approx 1.5" long & urethral meatus is located btw the clitoris & opening of vagina. Transports urine only.
male urethra approx 8" long & urethral meatus located at tip of penis. Transports urine & semen.
prostate gland part of male reproductive system, surrounds urethra
urination aka voiding or micturition; excreting urine
Produces urge to urinate as bladder fills up w/ urine, pressure placed on the base of the urethra
action of urination coordinated contraction of bladder muscles & relaxation of sphincters to force urine through urethra & out meatus
nephrologist physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating diseases & disorders of the kidneys
nephr kidney
urologist physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating diseases & disorders of the urinary system of females & genitourinary system of males
ur urine
nephropathy any disease of the kidney: includes both degererative & inflammatory conditions
diabetic nephropathy kidney disease resulting from late-stage diabetes mellitus
renal failure aka kidney failure; inability of 1 or both kidneys to perform their functions.
damaged nephrons body cannot replace the damaged ones & when too many are destroyed it leads to kidney failure
azotemia elevation of the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) caused by lack of blood flow to each kidney. Uremia can occur when excess toxic
uremia aka uremic poisoning; toxic condition resulting from renal failure in which kidney function compromised & waste retained in blood
acute renal failure ARF, sudden onset & characterized by uremia. Fatal if not reversed promptly. Kidneys not receiving enough blood to filter
what is typically the cause of the kidneys not receiving enough blood to filter? dehydration, or sudden drop in blood volume or blood pressure from injury, burns, or a severe infection
chronic kidney disease CKD; aka chronic renal disease or kidney failure; progressive loss of renal function over months or years. Can be life threatening
chronic kidney disease may result from diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or a family history of kidney disease
buildup of waste in blood from chronic kidney disease can be a contributing factor in heart attacks and strokes
end-stage renal disease ESRD; final stage of chronic kidney disease, fatal unless functions of kidneys are replaced by dialysis or transplant
nephrotic syndrome aka nephrosis; group of conditions in which excessive amts of protein are lost through urine.
what usually causes nephrotic syndrome damaged glomeruli, which results in abnormally low levels of protein in blood
nephro/o kidney
edema excessive fluid accumulation in body tissues that can be symptomatic of nephrotic syndrome or other kidney diseases.
where does edema occur around eyes, abdomen, or legs & feet
hyperproteinuria presence of abnormally high concentrations of protein in the urine
hypoproteinemia presence of abnormally low concentrations of protein in the blood. Associated w/ hyperproteinuria
causes of nephrotic syndrome diabetes mellitus, infection, kidney disorders.
minimal change disease nephrons look normal under regular microscope & is most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in children
hydronephrosis dilation (swelling) of 1 or both kidneys.
nephrolith kidney stone
nephritis inflammation of the kidney(s)
most common causes of nephritis from toxins, infection, or an autoimmune disease
most common causes of hydronephrosis Can be caused by backing up of urine from nephrolith or stricture in ureter
glomerulonephritis type of nephritis caused by inflammation of glomeruli that causes RBC's & proteins to leak into the urine
nephroptosis aka floating kidney; the prolapse, or dropping down, of a kidney into the pelvic area when patient stands
-ptosis droop or sag
prolapse slipping or falling out of place
nephropyosis aka pyonephrosis; suppuration of the kidney
py pus
suppuration formation or discharge of pus
polycycstic kidney disease PKD; genetic disorder characterized by growth of numerous fluid-filled cysts in kidneys.
what do PKD cysts do? slowly replace much of the mass of the kidney, reduce kidney function, which leads to kidney failure
renal colic acute pain in the kidney area that is caused by blockage during the passage of a nephrolith
renal colic spasms of pain in the abdomen, sometimes comes in waves due to peristaltic movement of ureters
Wilms tumor rare type of malignant tumor of the kidney that occurs in young children. High cure rate when treated promptly
stone aka calculus; abnormal mineral deposit that has formed w/in the body & is named for organ or tissue where located
sizes of stones as small as a grain of sand or as large as a marble, which can become lodged
how do stones form in urinary system when waste products in urine separate & crystallize, which could be from dehydration or something that disrupts balance
nephrolithiasis presence of stones in the kidney, when stone travels it is named for location where it lodges
-lithiasis presence of stones
nephrolith aka kidney stone or renal calculus; found in kidney
ureterolith stone located anywhere along ureter
cystolith stone located w/in urinary bladder
hydroureter the distention (swelling) of the ureter w/ urine that cannot flow b/c ureter is blocked. Always accompanies hydronephrosis
ureterectasis distention (swelling) of a ureter due to hydroureter or congenital abnormalies
ureterorrhagia discharge of blood from the ureter
cystalgia pain in the bladder
cystdynia pain in the bladder
cystocele aka prolapsed bladder, hernia of the bladder through vaginal wall, sometimes from pregnancy or childbirth
interstitial cystitis chronic inflammation w/in walls of bladder.
symptoms of interstitial cystitis similar to those of cystitis, but do not respond to traditional treatment
interstitial relating to spaces w/in a tissue or organ
vesicoureteral reflux VUR; backward flow of urine into ureters from the bladder, most common in infants & children
vesic/o bladder
vesicovaginal fistula abnormal opening btw bladder and vagina that allows constant involuntary flow of urine from bladder into vagina
fistual abnormal passage btw 2 internal organs
cause of vesicovaginal fistula prolonged labor during childbirth or surgery such as a hysterectomy
neurogenic bladder urinary problem caused by interference w/ normal nerve pathways associated w/ urination.
normal urinary function depends on nerves to sense when bladder is full and to control the muscles that either retain the urine or allow the bladder to empty
types of problems caused from neurogenic bladder incontinence, urinary retention w/ overflow leakage
causes of a neurgenic bladder tumor of nervous system, trauma, neuropathy, or inflammatory condition like MS
neuropathy any disease or damage to a nerve
benign prostatic hyperplasia aka benign prostatic hypertrophy or enlarged prostate; enlargement of prostate that occurs in men over 50
problems that a benign prostatic hyperlasia cause urination difficult and causes other urinary-tract problems in men
hyperplasia increase in cell #'s typically associated w/ tumor growth
prostatism disorder resulting from compression or obstruction of the urethra due to benign prostatic hyperplasia
prostat prostate
-ism condition of
prostatism can cause difficulties w/ urination, including urinary retention
prostate cancer one of the most common cancers among men. Can grow slowly w/ no symptoms or aggressively & spread th/o body
prostatitis group of disorders characterized by inflammation of prostate gland
chronic nonbacterial prostatitis most common type of prostatitis; no single known cause
bacterial prostatisis usually results from bacteria transported in urine
urethrorrhagai bleeding from the urethra
urethrorrhea an abnormal discharge from the urethra, condition associated w/ some STDs
urethrostenosis aka urethral stricture, narrowing of urethra. Occurs almost exclusively in men & caused by scarring from infection/ injury
epispadias congenital abnormality of urethral opening.
epispadias in men urethral opening is located on upper surface of penis
epispadias in women urethral opening is in the region of the clitoris
hypospadias congenital abnormality of the urethral opening.
hypospadias in men urethral opening is on the ventral surface (underside) of the penis
hypospadias in women urethra opens into the vagina
urinary tract infection UTI; usually begins in bladder but can affect all parts of urinary system
urinary tract infections caused by bacteria, most often E. coli, entering urinary system through urethra. More frequent in women.
cystitis inflammation of the bladder
pyelonephritis inflammation of both the renal pelvis and kidney, usually caused by bacterial infection that has spread upward from bladder
pyel/o renal pelvis
nephr kidney
urethritis inflammation of the urethra
anuria absence of urine formation by kidneys, often caused by kidney failure or urinary tract obstruction
diuresis increased output of urine
di- through
-uresis urination
dysuria difficult or painful urination, frequently associated w/ urinary tract infections
enuresis involuntary discharge of urine
nocturnal enuresis aka bed-wetting; urinary incontinence during sleep
nocturnal pertaining to night
nocturia frequent & excessive urination during the night
noct night
oliguria scanty urination, can be caused by dehydration, renal failure, or a urinary tract obstruction. Opposite of polyuria
polyuria excessive urination & is symptom of diabetes. Opposite of oliguria
urinary hesitancy difficulty in starting a urinary stream, most common in older men w/ enlarged prostate glands
bashful bladder syndrome inability to urinate when another person is present (younger people)
urinary retention aka ischuria; inability to completely empty bladder when attempting to urinate. More common in older men
incontinence inability to control the excretion of urine, feces, or both
urinary incontinence inability to control the voiding of urine
overflow incontinence continuous leaking from the bladder either b/c full or b/c it does not empty completely. Usually caused by blocked urethra. Men
stress incontinence inability to control the voiding of urine under physical stress such as running, lifting, sneezing, laughing, or coughing. Women
overactive bladder OAB; aka urge incontinence; occurs when muscles of bladder contract involuntarily even though bladder is not full enough to indicate need to urinate.
overactive bladder can be caused by over 40, excessive consumption of caffeine or alcohol, urinary tract infections, neurological diseases, or bladder/ prostate prob
urinalysis examination of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements. test for diseases, pregnancy, drugs
bladder ultrasound use of handheld ultrasound transducer to look for stones or elevation of the bladder by enlarged prostate & measure residual amt of urine after urination
normal bladder holds how many mL's of urine 300-400 mL
distended bladder when more than 300-400mL of urine is present after urination & is enlarged
urinary catheterization insertion of a tube into the bladder to procure a sterile specimen for diagnostic purposes. Drain bladder when patient unable or place medication in bladder
cystoscopy visual exam of urinary bladder w/ use of specialized type of endoscope known as cystoscope
endoscope instrument used for visual exam of internal structures
voiding cystourethrography diagnostic procedure in which a flouroscope is used to examine flow of urine from bladder & through urethra
computed tomography CT scan; used as a primary tool for evaluation of the urinary system b/c it can be rapidly performed & provides additional imaging of abdomen, which may reveal other potential sources for patient's symptoms
nephrotomography use of a CAT scan to examine kidneys
glomerular filtration rate GFR; blood test to check how well kidneys are functioning at filtering blood. Can help diagnose CKD & kidney failure
blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test like GFR, an indicator of kidney function
cystography is a radiographic exam of the bladder after a contrast medium is instilled via a urethral catheter
cystogram resulting film of a cystography
intravenous pyelography aka excretory urography; radiographic study of the kidneys & ureters.
how is an intravenous pyelography performed? contrast medium is administred intravenously to clearly define these structures in the resulting image
resulting image of an intravenous pyelography intravenous pyelogram IVP
what is an intravenous pylography performed for? used to diagnose changes in urinary tract, resulting from nephroliths, infections, enlarged prostate, tumors, & internal injuries after an abdominal trauma
KUB kidneys, ureters, bladder; aka flat-plate of the abdomen; radiographic study w/o use of contrast medium
what is a KUB used for? to detect bowel obstructions & nephroliths, does not show ureters
retrograde urography radiograph of the urinary system taken after a contrast medium has been placed in the urethra through a sterile catheter & caused flow upward through the urinary tract
retrograde moving backward
digital rectal examination performed on men by using lubricated, gloved finger placed in rectum to palpate the prostate gland to detect prostate enlargement & look for indications of cancer/ tumors
digital using a finger
palpate use of touch to examine a body part
prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test used to screen for prostate cancer. Measures amt of prostate- specific antigen that is present in a blood specimen.
prostate-specific antigen PSA; protein produced by cells of prostate gland to help liquefy semen. Higher PSA level, more likely cancer present
diuretics medications administered to increase urine secretion, primarily to rid the body of excess water & salt.
antispasmodics block signals that cause urinary incontinence
important dietary considerations for ppl w/ kidney disease monitoring amt of sodium, potassium, protein, & phosphorus in their diet
dialysis procedure to remove waste products, such as urea, creatinine, & excess water from blood of patient whose kidneys no longer function
2 types of dialysis in common use hemodialysis & peritoneal dialysis
hemodialysis aka artificial kidney; process by which waste products are filtered directly from patient's blood. Most common type.
shunt in hemodialysis implanted in patient's arm & connected to hemodialysis unit. Arterial blood flows through the filters of the unit.
shunt artificial passage that allows the blood to flow btw body & hemodialysis unit
dialysate a sterilized solution made up of water & electrolytes that is contained in the filters for hemodialysis; cleanses blood by removing waste products & excess fluids
electrolytes salts that conduct electricity & are found in the body fluid, tissue, & blood
peritoneal dialysis lining of peritoneal cavity acts as filter to remove waste from blood. Sterile dialysate flows into peritoneal cavity around intestine through a catheter implanted in abdominal wall.
which type of dialysis can usually be done at home? peritoneal dialysis
which type of dialysis is less effective? peritoneal dialysis
which type of dialysis takes approx 4 hrs 3x's per week? hemodialysis
which type of dialysis is repeated several times per day & can be done with automated system? peritoneal dialysis
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis CAPD; provides ongoing dialysis as patient goes about his/ her daily activities.
Process of CAPD dialysate solution instilled from plastic container worn under clothing & every 4 hrs the used solution is drained back into bag & bag is discarded, then new bag attached.
continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis CCPD uses a machine to cycle the dialysate solution during night while sleeping
automated peritoneal dialysis APD; uses a machine to cycle the dialysate solution during night while sleeping
nephrolysis surgical freeing of a kidney from adhesions OR a pathologic condition in which there is distruction of renal cells
adhesion band of fibers that holds structures together abnormally
-lysis setting free, but also means distruction
nephropexy aka nephrorrhaphy; surgical fixation of a nephroptosis, or floating kidney
-pexy surgical fixation
nephrostomy placement of catheter to maintain an opening from pelvis of one or both kidneys to exterior of body
pyelotomy surgical incision into renal pelvis. Performed to correct obstructions such as a stone lodged btw renal pelvis & ureter
renal transplantation aka kidney transplant; grafting of a donor kidney from living or dead donor into body to replace recipient's failed kidneys.
extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy ESWL; most common kidney stone treatment. High-energy ultrasonic waves traveling through water or gel used to break stone into fragments, then excreted in urine.
extracorporeal situated or occurring outside the body
lithotripsy used to break up kidney, ureter, bladder, or urethral stones
-tripsy to crush
percutaneous nephrolithotomy surgical removal of a nephrolith through a small incision in the back, used if ESWL not successful
percutaneous performed through the skin
ureterectomy surgical removal of a ureter
ureterorrhaphy surgical suturing of a ureter
ureteroscopy treatment for nephrolith lodged in the ureter. ureteroscope inserted through the urethra & bladder & into ureter. Removed intact w/ scope if possible.
ureteroscope specialized instrument used for ureteroscopy
cystectomy surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder, usually performed to treat bladder cancer
ileal conduit aka urinary ileostomy; use of a small piece of intestine to convey urine to the ureters & to a stoma in the abdomen
ile ileum or small intestine
cystorrhaphy surgical suturing of a wound or defect in the bladder
lithotomy surgical incision for the removal of a nephrolith from the bladder & is no longer common.
even though a lithotomy is no longer common, what is the term used for? describe a physical exam position for procedures involving the pelvis & lower abdomen
urinary catheterization aka cathing; performed to withdraw urine for diagnostic purposes, to allow urine to drain freely, or to place a fluid into bladder.
indwelling catheter remains inside body for a prolonged time based on need
indwelling residing within
urethral catheterization performed by inserting a plastic tube called a catheter through urethra & into bladder
suprapubic catheterization placement of a catheter into the bladder through a small incision made through the abdominal wall just above pubic bone
Foley catheter most common type of indwelling catheter. Made of flexible tube w/ balloon filled w/ sterile water @ end to hold in place.
Foley catheter named after surgeon Frederic Foley
intermittent catheter aka short-term catheter, inserted as needed several times a day to drain urine from the bladder
meatotomy surgical incision made in the urethral meatus to enlarge the opening
urethroplasty surgical repair of damage or a defect in the walls of the urethra
urethrotomy surgical incision into the urethra for relief of a stricture
stricture abnormal narrowing of a bodily passage
ablation term used to describe some types of treatment of prostate cancer. Involves removal of body part or destruction of its function through use of surgery, hormones, drugs, heat, chemicals, electrocautery, or other methods
electrocautery use of high-frequency electrical current to destroy tissue
prostatectomy surgical removal of part or all of the prostate gland. Performed to treat prostate cancer or reduce size, but can lead to erectile difficulties
radical prostatectomy surgical removal of the entire prostate gland in cases where it is extremely enlarged or when cancer suspected
transurethral prostatectomy TURP; removal of excess tissue from enlarged prostate gland w/ use of resectoscope
resectoscope specialized endoscopic instrument that resembles a cystoscope
retrograde ejaculation an orgasm results in semen flowing backward into the bladder instead of out through the penis. Most common long-term complication of a TURP.
retrograde moving backward
radiation therapy & hormone therapy, men additional treatments used to control prostate cancer
watchful waiting often the prescribed course of action for older patients b/c prostate cancer normally progresses slowly
Kegel exercises named for Dr. Arnold Kegel, are series of pelvic muscle exercises used to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor. Used to control urinary stress incontinence in both sexes.
Kegel exercises benefit for men control urinary stress incontinence and to treat prostate pain and swelling
Kegel exercises benefit for women control urinary stress incontinence and to condition the muscles so they will recover quickly after childbirth
bladder retraining behavioral therapy in which the patient learns to urinate on a schedule, w/ increasingly longer time intervals as bladder increases capacity.
goal of bladder retrainin reestablish voluntary bladder control & to break the cycle of frequency & urgency that results
ARF acute renal failure
BPH benign prostatic hyperplasia
cath catheterization
CKD chronic kidney disease
cysto cystoscopy
DRE digital rectal examination
ESRD end-stage renal disease
ESWL extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy
PKD polycystic kidney disease
TURP transurethral resection of the prostate
UTI urinary tract infection
Created by: kld0519
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