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A&P2 Chapter 26-27

The Urinary System

QuestionAnswer
The functional unit of the kidney that filters blood and forms urine is the? nephron
The blood vessel directly feeding the glomerulus with blood from the cortical radiate artery is the? afferent
The process that removes ions such as potassium and hydrogen from the blood and places them into the nephron for removal from the body as urine is known as? tubular secretion
Filtrate contains everything in blood plasma EXCEPT for? proteins
The tube connecting each kidney to the urinary bladder is the? ureters
The smooth triangular region of the urinary bladder base that is outlined by the openings of the two ureters and the urethra is called the? trigone
The inability to voluntarily control the external urethral sphincter is known as? incontinence
The process of emptying the urinary bladder is known as voiding or? micturition
About two-thirds of body fluid is found within living cells; this fluid is called the? intracellular fluid or ICF
The hormone released by the posterior pituitary to prevent excessive water loss in the urine is? antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Arterial blood pH above 7.45 is considered to be? alkalosis
The kidneys can help maintain a rising blood pH by excreting _______ ions and reabsorbing _______ ions by the tubule cells. bicarbonate; hydrogen
A strong acid will dissociate and liberate more ________ ions in water than a weak acid. hydrogen
List the functions of the kidneys. (1) remove metabolic wastes from blood & excrete outside body. (2) help control rate of RBC formation by secreting erythropoietin.. (3) help regulate blood pressure via release of renin. (4) help regulate the volume, composition & pH of body fluids.
Which organ filters blood, regulates blood volume and chemical makeup? kidney
The triangular medullary regions of the kidneys that are striped in appearance and separated by renal columns are the? renal pyramids
The capillary bed surrounding the renal tubule is the? peritubular capillaries
Starting from the glomerular capsule, what is the correct order of the renal tubule regions. proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule
The portion of the renal tubule closest to the glomerulus is the? proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
In one 24-hour period, the kidneys of an average-sized healthy adult filter approximately _________ through their glomeruli into the tubules. 150-180 liters of blood plasma
In males, the urethra is part of both the urinary system and? reproductive system
Urine is transported from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body by the? urethra
What type of epithelium tissue allows the urinary bladder to expand as urine accumulates within it? transitional epithelium
What is a possible cause of bile pigments in the urine? this is called bilirubinuria, a liver pathology such as hepatitis, cirrhosis or bile duct blockage
Which substance(s) are NOT typically reabsorbed by the tubules under normal healthy conditions? urea
The nonselective, passive process performed by the glomerulus that forms blood plasma without blood proteins is called? filtration
Of the two capillary beds associated with each nephron, the one that is both fed an drained by arterioles is the? glomerulus
Most nephrons are located within the renal _______? cortex
Extracellular fluid is found everywhere in the body EXCEPT? within living cells
The main hormone that acts on the kidneys to regulate sodium ion concentration of the extracellular fluid (ECF) is? aldosterone
The chemical buffer system that includes carbonic acid and its salt, which ties up the H+ released by strong acids, is called the? bicarbonate buffer system
Which system removes excess carbon dioxide from the blood? respiratory system
Which of the following substances is NOT secreted at any point into the renal tubules? sodium
What makes up the filtration barrier? fenestrated capillary epithelium, the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and the podocyte
During what renal process are molecules selectively removed from the tubule lumen, moved into the interstitial space, and removed from the kidneys by the peritubular capillaries and the vasa recta? reabsorption
What capillaries come off of the efferent arterioles associated with juxtamedullary nephrons? vasa recta
After fluid passes through the entire proximal tubule, the fluid will enter the? loop of Henle
What two structures make up the renal corpuscle? Bowman's capsule and glomerulus
Once produced, urine travels through the ________ until it reaches the bladder, from which it is released into the external environment through the _________. ureter; urethra
The primary function of the kidneys involves regulating the __________ and the _________ of plasma and interstitial fluid. volume; composition
How does the urinary system respond to blood that has become acidic? it excretes hydrogen ions into the urine and reabsorbs bicarbonate
What happens to the detrusor muscle, internal and external urethral sphincter during micturition? the detrusor muscle surrounding the bladder contracts, the internal sphincter relaxes allowing urine to pass out the bladder into the urethra and the external sphincter must be relaxed for urine to flow through the urethra and outside the body
Epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule that form part of the filtration barrier are called? podocytes
What solute is primarily responsible for producing the osmotic gradient that drives water absorption? sodium
How does severe vomiting cause a metabolic alkalosis? by loss of gastric secretions, which are rich in hydrochloric acid (HCI)
Which of the following is a source of water input? ingested liquids and solid foods
How might a high-protein diet cause metabolic acidosis? production of phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid
How might heavy exercise cause metabolic acidosis? production of lactic acid
The role of a buffer is to? minimize the change in pH when base or acid is added to the solution
Respiratory acidosis can occur when? a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart. The influence of this hormone is to? reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention
What happens to the blood volume when consuming a meal high in salt? result in a temporary increase in blood volume
When water is lost, but electrolytes are retained? osmosis moves water from the intracellular fluid (ICF) to the extracellular fluid (ECF)
The principle cation in intracellular fluid is? potassium
Substances that can carry electrical current across cell membranes are called? electrolytes
Intracellular fluid (ICF) is found only within? the cells of the body
List the structure through which urine passes. kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
How is the kidney involved with normal bone ossification and development? (Think of mineral needed for bone ossification) the kidney produces calcitriol
If the thyroid and parathyroid glands are surgically removed, which of the following would go out of balance without replacement therapy? calcium ion levels
A falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates? respiratory acidosis
Nancy is experiencing an acute panic attack. While hyperventilating, she remembers to open a paper bag and breathe into it. What is Nancy trying to prevent, respiratory acidosis or respiratory alkalosis? respiratory alkalosis
*SHORT ANSWER* List each organ of the urinary system and concisely describe its function. (1) kidneys-filter blood & make urine (2) ureters-carry urine from kidney to urinary bladder (3) urinary bladder-temporarily stores & releases urine (4) urethra-carry urine from the bladder to urinary orifice
*SHORT ANSWER* Explain how tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion are nearly opposite processes. Reabsorption-body reclaims substances within the filtrate it wants to keep. Secretion-H+, K+, and creatine are removed from peritubluar capillaries into tubules to be eliminated in urine.
The urinary system does all of the following EXCEPT? excreting excess albumin molecules
A glomerulus is? a knot of capillaries within the renal corpuscle
Urine is eliminated through the? urethra
The urinary system regulates blood volume and pressure by? adjusting the volume of water lost in urine, releasing erythropoietin and releasing renin
Insoluble deposits that form within the urinary tract from calcium salts, magnesium salts or uric acid are called kidney stones or renal_______? calculi
The area of the urinary bladder bounded by the openings of the two ureters and the urethra is called the? trigone
In the process of ________ two substances are moved across a cell membrane in the same direction without directly using cellular energy. One of the substances can be moved against a concentration gradient by this process. cotransport
The process of _________ involves a carrier protein that can transport a molecule across the cell membrane down its concentration gradient. facilitated diffusion
The amount of filtrate produced by the kidneys each minute is called the? glomerular filtration rate
Which of the following organ systems excretes wastes to some degree EXCEPT the _________ system. endocrine
Changes that occur in the urinary system with aging include all of the following EXCEPT? increased sensitivity to ADH
The inability of the kidneys to excrete adequately to maintain homeostasis is? renal failure
Which hormone stimulates the thirst mechanism? ADH
All of the following are components of ECF EXCEPT? RBCs
Which of the following will stimulate thirst? All of the answers are correct: drying the mucosa of the mouth and pharynx, angiotensin II acting on the hypothalamus, and an increase in the osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid within the hypothalamus
Which hormone MOST affects the osmolarity of blood? ADH
Which hormone(s) is released by heart muscle in response to excessive chamber volume? natriuretic peptides
The MOST dangerous problems with electrolyte balance are caused by an imbalance between gains and losses of? potassium ions
Calcium reabsorption by the kidneys is promoted by the hormone? parathyroid hormone
Which of the following descriptions BEST fits the acid-base disorder metabolic alkalosis? consequence of prolonged vomitting
Created by: jnipper
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