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Chapter 14 high mid

QuestionAnswer
Crusades (1096-1204)a series of wars carried out by European Christians to gain control of the Holly Land from their Muslim tulers
Holy Land region that included Jerusalem and the area around it, considered holy by Jews, Christians, and Muslims
Pope Urban II (c. 1042-1099)Roman Catholic pope from 1088 to 1099; he called on Christians to launch the First Crusade
Saladin Muslim sultan and hero; he campaigned to drive the Christians from the Holy Land. He stopped an army of crusaders under Richard the lion-hearted
Richard the lion-hearted king of England from 1189 to 1199; he fought in the Holy Land against Saladin during the Third Crusade. He eventually ceased fighting and returned to England
Hanseatic League an organization of north-German cities and towns that organized and controlled trade throughout northern European from the 1200s through the 1400s
credit an arrangement by which a purchaser borrows money from a bank or other lender and agrees to pay it back over time
guilds associations of people who worked an the same craft or trade during the French Revolution
apprentice a person who learns a skill under a master of the trade
journeyman a skilled worker who was paid wages by the master of a guild
Gothic A style of Church architecture developed during the 1100s characterized by tall spores and flying buttresses
flying buttress an arched stone support on the outside of buildings, which allows builders to construct higher walls
illumination The process of decorating a written manuscript with pictures of designs
Hildegard of Bingen Medieval nun and author; she wrote dozens of poems and music to accompany them
trobadours traveling singers who entertained people during the middle ages
Geoffrey Chaucer English poet; he wrote The Canterbury Tales,23 stories of pilgrims assembled at the Tabard Inn in South wark
Dante Alighieri Italian poet and humanist; he was the author of The Divine Comedy, one of the greatest literary classics
Thomas Aquinas Italian philosopher and theologian; he argued the rational thought could be used to support Roman Catholic belief
Scholasticism in the Middle Ages,the theological and philosophical school of thought that attemtped to reconcile faith and reason
heresy an opinion that goes against the teachings of a church
Inquisitions institution of the Roman Catholic Church that sought to eliminate heresy by seek ou and punishing heretics; especially active in Spain in 1400s and 1500
friars Members of certain Roman Catholic religious orders; first prominent in the Eupope of the late Middle Ages; unlike monks,friars preach in town
Hundred Years' War war fought between France and England for control of the French throne
Joan of Arc French soldier and national heroin; she rallied the French troops during the Hundred Years' War and was burned at the stake for heresy
Wars of the Roses civil war for the English crown between the York(white rose) and Lancaster(red rose) families.
Henry VII King of England from 1509 to 1547 ; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henty established the Church of England in 1532
Black Death a terrible outbreak of bubonic plague that swept through Europe, beginning in 1347
Created by: bprimo