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Chap.14 - Crusades

Term / Definition

Crusades a series of wars carried out by European Christians to gain control of the Holy Land from the Muslim rulers.
Holy land region that included Jerusalem and the area around it, considered holy by Jews, Christians and Muslims.
Pope Urban ll Roman catholic pope from 1099 to 1099; he called on Christians to launch the 1st Crusade.
Saladin Muslim sultan and hero; he campaigned to drive the Christians from the Holy Land . he stopped n army of crusaders under Richard the Lion-Hearted of England.
Richard the Lion-Hearted king of England from 1189 to 1199: he fought in the Holy Land against Saladin during the 3rd crusade. he eventually ceased fighting and returned to England.
Hanseatic Leauge a organization of north-German cities and towns that organized and controlled trade throughout northern Europe from the 1200's through the 1400's
credit an arrangement by which a purchaser borrows money from a bank or other lender and agrees to pay it back over time.
guilds association of people who worked at the same craft or trade during the Middle Ages.
apprentice a person who learns a skill under a master of trade.
journeyman a skilled worker who was paid wages by the master of guild.
gothic a style of church architecture developed during the 1100's characterized by tall spires and flying buttresses.
flying buttress an arched stone support on the outside of buildings, which allows builders to construct higher walls.
illumination the process of decorating a written manuscript with pictures or designs.
Hildegard of Bingen medieval nun and author; she wrote dozens of poems and music to accompany them.
troubadours traveling singers who entertained people during the Middle Ages.
Geoffrey Chaucer English poet; he wrote The Canterbury Tales, 23 stories of pilgrims assembled at the Tabard Inn in Southwark
Dante Alighieri Italian poet and humanist; he was the author of The Divine Comedy, one of the greatest literary classics.
Thomas Aquinas Italian philosopher and theologian; he argued that rational though could be used to support Roman catholic belief.
scholasticism in the Middle Ages, the theological and philosophical school of thought that attempted to reconcile faith and reason.
heresy an opinion that goes against the teachings of the church.
Inquistions institution of the Roman Catholic Church that sought to eliminate heresy by seeking out and punishing heretics; especially active in Spain the later 1400's and 1500's
friars members of certain Roman Catholic religious orders; first prominent in the Europe of the lat Middle Ages; unlike monks. friars preached in towns.
Hundred Years' War war fought between France and England for Control of the French throne.
Joan of Arc French soldier and national heroine; she rallied the French troops during the Hundred Years' War and was burned at the stake of heresy.
Wars of the Roses civil war for the English crown between the York and Lancaster families.
Henry VII king of England; he was the 1st king of the house of Tudor; his defeat of Richard III and his assumption of the throne marked the end of the wars of the Roses and marked the beginning of a new era in England's history.
Black Death a terrible outbreak of bubonic plague that swept through Europe, beginning in 1347.
Created by: kaileepetty