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Med Term CH8

Med Term CH8 Digestive System

an/o anus, ring
chol/e bile, gall
cholecyst/o gallbladder
col/o colon, large intestine
colon/o colon, large intestine
-emsis vomiting
enter/o small intestine
esophag/o esophagus
gastr/o stomach, belly
hepat/o liver
-lithiasis presence of stones
-pepsia digest, digestion
-phagia eating, swallowing
proct/o anus and rectum
rect/o rectum, straight
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
gastrointestinal tract aka GI tract, stomach and intestines
digestive system upper GI tract and lower GI tract
Upper GI tract parts mouth, pharynx (throat), esophagus, & stomach.
Upper GI tract functions transports food from entry into the body until digestion begins in the stomach
Lower GI tract parts "bowels," small & large intestines plus rectum and anus
Lower GI tract functions digestion is completed and waste material is prepared for expulsion from the body.
Accessory organs of the digestive system liver, gallbladder, & pancreas - play a key role in digestive process, but are not part of the gastrointestinal tract.
oral cavity, major structures aka mouth; lips, hard & soft palates, salivary glands, tongue, teeth, and periodontium.
lips aka labia; surround the opening to oral cavity, important role in breathing, speaking, & expression of emotions.
holds the food in mouth lips, tongue, and cheeks
palate forms roof of the mouth and consists of 3 parts: hard palate, soft palate, & uvula
hard palate anterior portion of the palate covered w/ specialized mucous membrane
rugae irregular ridges or folds in the mucous membrane of the hard palate
soft palate flexible posterior portion of palate, closes off nasal passage to prevent food & liquid from moving upward into the nasal cavity when swallowing.
uvula hangs from free edge of soft palate and moves upward during swallowing w/ soft palate. Important role in snoring & formation of some speech sounds
tongue very strong, flexible, & muscular. Posterior attached, anterior is free & flexible, important for chewing, speaking, swallowing
dorsum upper surface of the tongue w/ tough protective covering & some papillae
papillae on dorsum of tongue, small bumps containing taste buds, which are sensory receptors for sense of taste
sublingual surface of tongue under the tongue & highly vascular tissue surrounding.
administering medications sublingually since highly vascular area, placing medications under tongue allows them to be quickly absorbed into bloodstream
lingual frenum band of tissue that attaches tongue to floor of mouth and limits motion of tongue
periodontium structures that surround, support, & are attached to the teeth. Consists of bone of dental arches & soft tissues that surround/ support teeth
odonti teeth
peri- surrounding
gingiva aka masticatory mucosa or gums, specialized mucous membrane that covers the bone of the dental arches & surrounds neck of teeth
sulcus area of space btw tooth & surrounding gingiva. Buildup of food, debris, bacteria can lead to infection.
dental arches bony structures of the oral cavity that hold teeth firmly in position to facilitate chewing & speaking.
sulci space btw tooth & surrounding gingiva OR fissures in cerebral cortex of the brain
maxillary arch upper jaw & consists of bones of the lower surface of the skull. Does not move
mandibular arch lower jaw & is a separate bone that is the only movable component of the joint.
temporomandibular joint TMJ, formed @ back of mouth where maxillary & mandibular arches come together
dentition the natural teeth arranged in upper & lower jaws. 4 types in humans: incisors, canines, premolars, molars
incisors used for biting and tearing
canines aka cuspids, used for biting & tearing
premolars aka bicuspids, used for chewing & grinding
molars used for chewing & grinding
primary dentition aka baby teeth, deciduous dentition, 20 teeth in early childhood & lost/ replaced w/ permanent. 8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 molars (0 premolars)
permanent dentition 32 teeth designed to last lifetime; 20 replace primary dentition & 12 @ back. 8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 premolars, 12 molars.
occulsion (teeth) in dentistry, describes any contact btw chewing surfaces of upper & lower teeth
crown (teeth) portion of tooth that is visible in the mouth and covered by enamel
enamel (teeth) hardest substance in body
roots (teeth) hold tooth securely in place w/in dental arch, protected by cementum
cementum (teeth) hard substance that protects roots, not as hard as enamel
cervix (teeth) neck of the tooth, where crown and root meet
dentin (teeth) makes up bulk of the tooth, the portion that is above the gum line is covered w/ enamel.
pulp cavity (teeth) area w/in crown & roots of tooth that is surrounded by the dentin to protect the delicate pulp of the tooth.
root canals (teeth) pulp continues into this space
pulp (teeth) consists of rich supply of blood vessels & nerves that provide nutrients & innervation to the tooth
saliva colorless liquid that maintains moisture in mouth, health of teeth, & begins digestive process by lubricating food.
mechanical digestion chewing & swallowing food
amylase digestive enzyme in saliva for 1st step in chemical digestion
salivary glands 3 pairs: parotid, sublingual, submandibular; secrete saliva that is carried by ducts into the mouth
parotid glands located on face, slightly in front of each ear. Ducts for these glands on inside of cheek near upper molars
sublingual glands located on floor of mouth under tongue, along w/ their ducts
submandibular glands located on the floor of the mouth near the mandible, along w/ their ducts
pharynx common passageway for both respiration & digestion, plays important role in deglutition.
deglutition swallowing
epiglottis lid-like structure that closes off the entrance to the trachea to prevent food & liquids from moving pharynx during swallowing
trachea windpipe
esophagus muscular tube through which ingested food passes from the pharynx to the stomach
lower esophageal sphincter aka cardiac sphincter, muscular ring btw the esophagus & stomach. During swallowing, relaxes to allow food to enter stomach
regurgitating flowing backward
when does lower esophageal sphincter open/ close opens to allow flow of food into stomach & closes to prevent stomach contents from regurgitating into esophagus
stomach sac-like organ composed of fundus, body, antrum
fundus (stomach) upper, rounded part
body (stomach) main portion
antrum (stomach) lower part
rugae folds in the mucosa lining of the stomach, allow stomach to increase & decrease in size. Glands in the folds produce gastric juices
gastric juices made up of enzymes & hydrochloric acid that aid in starting food digestion. Mucus produced by glands in stomach create protective coating on lining of stomach.
pyloric sphincter ring-like muscle @ base of stomach that controls flow of partially digested food from stomach to the duodenum of sm intestine
pylorus narrow passage that connects the stomach w/ small intestine
small intestine extends from pyloric sphincter to 1st part of LG intestine. Coiled organ is up to 20' & has 3 sections.
happens in 3 sections of small intestine food is digested & nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream
3 sections of small intestine duodenum, jejunum, & ileum
duodenum 1st portion of small intestine & extends from pylorus of stomach to the jejunum
jejunum middle portion of small intestine that extends from duodenum to the ileum
ileum last & longest portion of small intestine that extends from the jejunum to the cecum of the LG intestine
large intestine extends from end of small intestine to anus & is 2x's as wide as sm intestine, 1/4 as long.
happens in large intestine waste products of digestion are processed in preparation for excretion through the anus
4 major parts of large intestine cecum, colon, rectum, anus
cecum pouch that lies on the right side of abdomen that extends from end of ileum to beginning of colon
ileocecal sphincter ring-like muscle that controls flow from ileum of small intestine into cecum of large intestine
vermiform appendix aka appendix; hangs from lower portion of cecum, consists of lymphoid tissue
vermiform worm-like shape
colon longest portion of the large intestine, divided into 4 parts
4 sections of colon ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid
ascending colon travels upward from the cecum to the undersurface of the liver
transverse colon passes horizontally across the abdominal cavity from RT to LT toward spleen
transverse accross
descending colon travels down the LT side of the abdominal cavity to the sigmoid colon.
descending downward
sigmoid colon S-shaped structure that continues from the descending colon above & joins rectum below
sigmoid curved like the letter s
rectum widest division of large intestine that makes up the last 4" of LG intestine & ends @ anus
anus lower opening of the digestive tract handling flow of waste w/ internal & external anal sphincters
anorectal anus & rectum
liver largest organ in body, removes toxins from blood & turns food to fuel & nutrients that body needs.
hepatic pertaining to the liver
the liver & glycogen Liver removes excess glucose (blood sugar) from bloodstream & stores it as glycogen. when blood sugar low, liver converts glycogen back to glucose & releases it to the body.
glycogen form of glucose stored in the liver & muscles.
bilirubin pigment excreted into digestive fluid called bile, giving it yellow to green color. Excessive amounts = jaundice & other diseases
bile aids in digestion of fats, is digestive juice secreted by liver that is necessary for digestion of fat.
hepat liver
the travel of bile travels from liver to gallbladder, where it is concentrated & stored
biliary tree provides the channels through which bile is transported from the liver to the small intestine
biliary pertaining to bile
common hepatic duct trunk of the biliary tree is here
form biliary tree small ducts in the liver join together like branches
cystic duct bile travels from the liver through the common hepatic duct to the gallbladder where it enters and exits through this narrow duct
common bile duct where cystic duct leaving gallbladder rejoins the common hepatic duct
pancreatic duct common bile duct joins this & together they enter the duodenum of small intestine
gallbladder pear-shaped organ about size of egg located under liver. Stores & concentrates bile for later use.
when bile needed from gallbladder gallbladder contracts, forcing bile out through biliary tree
cholecystic pertaining to the gallbladder
pancreas soft, 6" oblong gland that is located behind the stomach. Important for digestive & endocrine systems
pancreas functions for digestive system produces & secretes pancreatic juices that aid in digestion & contain digestive enzymes & sodium bicarbonate to help neutralize stomach acids
pancreatic pertaining to the pancreas
pancreatic duct where pancreatic juices leave the pancreas & duct joins common bile duct just before entrance to duodenum
digestion process by which complex foods are broken down into nutrients in a form the body can use
digestive enzymes responsible for chemical changes that break foods down into simpler forms of nutrients for use by the body
nutrient a substance, usually from food, that is necessary for normal functioning of the body.
primary, or macronutrients carbohydrates, fats, & proteins.
essential micronutrients vitamins & minerals, required in only small amounts
metabolism includes all of the processes involved in the body's use of nutrients. Consists of anabolism & catabolism.
metabol change
-ism condition
anabolism building up of body cells & substances from nutrients
catabolism breaking down of body cells or substances, releasing energy & carbon dioxide.
absorption process by which completely digested nutrients are transported to the cells throughout the body
villi finger-like projections that line the mucosa of the small intestine. Contain blood vessels & lacteals. Absorb nutrients directly from digestive system into bloodstream for delivery to cells of body
lacteals specialized structures of the lymphatic system, absorb fats & fat-soluble vitamins that cannot be transported directly by bloodstream. Absorb nutrients & transport via lymphatic vessels
mastication aka chewing; breaks down food into smaller pieces, mixes it w/ saliva, & prepares it to be swallowed
bolus mass of food that has been chewed & is ready to be swallowed.
food path from mouth to esophagus mouth into pharynx, and on into the esophagus
once food it in the esophagus it moves downward through the action of gravity & peristalisis.
peristalisis series of wave-like contraction of smooth muscles in a single direction that moves the food forward into the digestive system
gastric juices of the stomach... contain hydrochloric acid & digestive enzymes to continue the breakdown of food. Few nutrients enter bloodstream through walls of stomach
churning action of stomach... works w/ gastric juices by converting food into chyme
chyme semifluid mass of partly digested food that passes out of the stomach, through the pyloric sphincter, and into small intestines
role of small intestine conversion of food into usable nutrients completed as chyme is moved through small intestine by peristaltic action.
process inside duodenum chyme mixed w/ pancreatic juice & bile. Bile breaks apart LG fat globules so that enzymes in the pancreatic juices can digest fats
emulsification when bile breaks apart LG fat globules so that enzymes in pancreatic juices can digest the fats.
emulsification must be completed before... nutrients can be absorbed into the body
process inside jejunem secretes LG amt of digestive enzymes & continues process of digestion
primary function of ileum absorb nutrients from digested food
role of large intestine receive the waste products of digestion & store them until eliminated from body
process inside large intestine food enters LG intestine where excess water is reabsorbed into body through walls of LG intestine, helping maintain body's fluid balance. Remaining waste forms into feces
feces aka solid body wastes, are expelled through the rectum & anus
defecation aka bowl movement BM, the evacuation or emptying of the large intestine
disruption of microflora from use of antibiotics can lead to infections like c. diff.
gut microflora billions of normal bacteria present in LG intestines to protect against infection & to help maintain immune system. Helps break down organic waste material.
borborygmus rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine
flatulence aka flatus; passage of gas out of the body through the rectum
bariatrics branch of medicine concerned w/ prevention & control of obesity & associated diseases
dentist holds dr. of dental surgery (DDS) or Dr. of medical dentistry (DMD) degree & specializes in diagnosing & treating diseases & disorders of teeth & tissues of oral cavity
gastroenterologist physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating diseases & disorders of stomach & intestines
oral or maxillofacial surgeon specializes in surgery of face & jaws to correct deformities, treat diseases, & repair injuries
orthodontist dental specialist who prevents or corrects malocclusion of teeth & related facial structures
odont teeth
peri- surrounding
proctologist physician who specializes in disorders of the colon, rectum, & anus
registered dietician RD; specialist in food & nutrition who practices medical nutrition therapy & counsels patients on improving dietary intake
aphthous ulcers aka canker sores, mouth ulcers; gray-white pits w/ a red border in the soft tissues lining mouth. Cause unk, assoc. w/ stress, foods, fever
ulcer open lesion of skin mucous membrane resulting in tissue loss around edges
cheilosis aka cheilitis; disorder of the lips characterized by crack-like sores @ corners of mouth
cheil lips
herpes labialis aka cold sores, fever blisters; blister-like sores on lips & adjacent facial tissue caused by oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)
Most adults have been infected by this extremely common virus, & in some, it becomes reactivated periodically causing cold sores HSV-1, oral herpes simplex virus type 1
leukoplakia abnormal white, usually benign lesion (sore) that develops on tongue or inside cheek. Response to chronic irritation.
-plakia plaque
stomatitis inflammation of the mucosa of the mouth
stoma artificial mouth-like opening btw an organ & body's surface
stomatomycosis any disease of the mouth due to fungus
myc fungus
stomat/o mouth or oral cavity
oral thrush type of stomatomycosis that develops when fungus Candida albicans grows out of control. Creamy white lesions on tongue/ inner cheek. infants, older adults, or taking antibiotics
trismus any restriction to the opening of the mouth caused by trauma, surgery, or radiation assoc w/ treatment of oral cancer. Difficulty speaking & affects nutrition from impaired chewing & swallowing
xerostomia aka dry mouth; lack of adequate saliva due to diminished secretions by salivary glands. Caused by meds or radiation
xerostomia can cause discomfort, difficulty in swallowing, changes in taste of food, & dental decay
cleft lip aka harelip; birth defect in which there is a deep groove of lip running upward to nose as a result of lip not closing @ develop.
cleft palate failure of palate to close during early development of fetus. Can involve upper lip, hard/ soft palate
bruxism involuntary grinding or clenching of teeth typically @ sleep, associated w/ tension or stress - habitually during day.
bruxism damage wears away tooth structure, damages periodontal tissues, & injures temporomandibular joint
dental carries aka tooth decay or cavity; infectious disease caused by bacteria that destroy enamel & dentin of tooth. If not fixed, exposed & infected
dental plaque major cause o dental carries & periodontal disease, forms as soft deposits in sheltered areas near gums & btw teeth. Bacteria
plaque associated w/ heart conditions consists of deposits of cholesterol that form w/in blood vessels
edentulous w/o teeth, situation after natural permanent teeth have been lost
halitosis aka bad breath; unpleasant odor coming from the mouth that can be caused by dental diseases or respiratory or gastric disorders
halit breath
stom mouth or oral cavity
-plakia plaque
xer/o dry
malocclusion any deviation from the normal positioning of the upper teeth against lower teeth
periodontal disease aka periodontitis; inflammation of the tissues that surround & support teeth. Progressive disease by degree of tissue involvem.
severe case of periodontal disease gums & bone surrounding teeth are involved
dental calculus aka tartar; dental plaque that has calcified on teeth, irritate surrounding tissues & can cause periodontal diseases
calcified hardened
calculus hard deposits, such as gallstones or kidney stones, that form in other parts of body
gingivitis earliest stage of periodontal disease, & inflammation affects only gums
gingiv gums
acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis ANUG or trench mouth; caused by abnormal bacterial growth in mouth. As progresses: inflam, bleeding, ulceration, tissue death
necrotizing causing ongoing tissue death
dysphagia difficulty in swallowing
-phagia swallowing
eosinophilic esophagitis chronic immune system disease in which a type of WBC called eosinophil builds up in esophagus, usually from food allergy.
gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD; upward flow of acid from stomach into esophagus. Stomach acid irritates/ damages esophagus lining
reflux backward or return flow
Barrett's esophagus condition that occurs when cells in epithelial tissue of esophagus are damaged by chronic acid exposure. Complication of GERD
stricture abnormal narrowing of esophagus resulting from scar tissue or other damage that can cause swallowing difficulties
pyrosis heartburn; burning sensation caused by return of acidic stomach contents into esophagus
esophageal varices enlarged & swollen veins @ lower end of esophagus. Severe bleeding occurs if one of these veins rupture
hiatal hernia anatomical abnormality which portion of stomach protrudes upward into chest, through opening in diagphragm
hernia protrusion of a part or structure through the tissues that normally contain it, can cause GERD and pyrosis
gastritis common inflammation of the stomach lining that is often caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori
gastroenteritis inflammation of mucous membrane lining stomach & intestines
gastroparesis condition in which muscles in stomach slow down & work poorly or not at all, preventing stomach from emptying normally
-paresis partial paralysis
gastrorrhea excessive secretion of gastric juice or mucus in stomach
peptic ulcers sores that affect mucous membranes of the digestive system, caused by bacteria Helicobacter pylori or meds that irritate
pept digestion
peptic ulcer disease the condition of having peptic ulcers
gastric ulcers peptic ulcers that occur in stomach
duodenal ulcers peptic ulcers that occur in upper part of small intestine
perforating ulcer complication of a peptic ulcer in which the ulcer erodes through the entire thickness of the organ wall
anorexia loss of appetite for food, especially when caused by disease.
cachexia condition of physical wasting away due to loss of weight & muscle mass that occurs in patients w/ diseases such as cancer/ AIDS. Might eat enough, but body won't absorb enough nutrients
dehydration condition which fluid loss exceeds fluid intake & disrupts body's normal electrolyte balance
malnutrition lack of proper food or nutrients in body due to shortage of food, poor habits, or inability of body to digest, absorb, distribute
malabsorbtion condition in which small intestine cannot absorb nutrients from food that passes through it
obesity excessive accumulation of fat in body, frequently present as comorbidity w/ conditions like hypertension
obese usually used to refer to individuals who are more than 20% to 30% over established weight standards for height/age/gender
gender differences btw men & women
morbid obestity aka severe obesity; condition of weighing 2x more than ideal weight or having BMI value over 40
"morbid" for morbid obesity diseased state
body mass index BMI, # that shows body weight adjusted for height. Underweight, normal, overweight, obese. High BMI factor for diseases
comorbidity presence of more than one disease or health condition in an individual at a given time
aerophagia excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking & is common cause of gas in stomach
dyspepsia aka indigestion; pain or discomfort in digestion
-pepsia digestion
dys- painful
emesis aka vomiting; reflex ejection of stomach contents outward through mouth
-emesis aka vomiting; reflex ejection of stomach contents outward through mouth
eructation act of belching or raising gas orally from stomach
hematemesis vomiting of blood, often resembles coffee grounds
hyperemesis extreme, persistent vomiting that can cause dehydration
morning sickness hyperemesis during early stages of pregnancy
nausea urge to vomit
regurgitation return of swallowed food into mouth
celiac disease hereditary autoimmune disorder characterized by severe reaction to foods containing gluten. Damages villi of small intesting & can cause malabsorbtion
gluten type of protein found in grains such as wheat, barley, & rye
gluten intolerance aka non-celiac gluten sensitivity; response to gluten involving digestive distress but not intestinal tissue damage like celiac
gluten intolerance is sometimes caused by an... allergy to wheat
food allergy an immune system reaction that occurs after eating a certain food
lactose intolerance inability to digest dairy products due to absence of enzyme lactase, which is needed to process the sugar in milk/ dairy
lactose intolerance common for African-Americans & East Asians
colorectal carcinoma aka colon cancer; often 1st manifests itself in polyps in colon
polyp mushroom like growth from the surface of a mucous membrane, not all are malignant
diverticulosis chronic presence of an abnormal # of diverticula in colon. Often no symptoms, related to low fiber diet
diverticul diverticulum
diverticulum small pouch, or sac, found in lining or wall of a tubular organ such as the colon
diverticulitis sometimes develops as a result of diverticulosis, inflammation or infection of 1 or more diverticulum in colon
enteritis inflammation of the small intestine caused by eating or drinking substances contaminated w/ viral or bacterial pathogens
ischemic colitis occurs when part of LG intestine is partially or completely deprived of blood. Lack of blood persists, then leads to inflammation & permanent damage of affected area.
ileus aka paralytic ileus; partial or complete blockage of the SM or LG intestine, caused by stopping of normal peristalsis in this area of intestine.
symptoms of ileus severe pain, cramping, abdominal distention, vomiting, & inability to pass gas or stools
postoperative ileus temporary impairment (stoppage) of bowel action that is considered to be a normal response to abdominal surgery. 24-72 hrs
irritable bowel syndrome IBS; common condition of unk. cause w/ symptoms that can include intermitent cramping & abdominal pain, w/ constipation or diarrhea. Aggravated by stress/ foods, not pathogens
inflammatory bowel disease IBD; general name for diseases that cause inflammation & swelling in intestines. Ulcerative colitis & Crohn's disease
ulcerative colitis & Crohn's disease most common IBD, chronic, incurable, can affect LG & SM intestines, similar symptoms: ab pain, weight loss, fatigue, fever, rectal bleeding, diarrhea
flares intervals of active disease alternating w/ periods of remission, for ulcerative colitis & Crohn's. Treatment meds, surgery
ulcerative colitis chronic condition of unk cause which repeated episodes of inflam in rectum & LG intestine cause ulcers & irritation
Area of ulcerative colitis starts in rectum & progresses upward to lower part of colon (can entire LG int), affects only innermost lining & not deep tissues
Crohn's disease CD; chronic autoimmune disorder can occur anywhere in digestive tract - most common in ileum & colon. Penetrates every layer of affected area, so scarring & thickening of walls.
common complication of Crohn's disease blockage of intestine due to swelling & scarring
intestinal obstruction partial or complete blockage of SM or LG intestine caused by physical obstruction. Many causes
intestinal adhesions abnormally hold together parts of intestine that should be separate. Condition caused by inflammation or trauma.
strangulating obstruction blood flow to a segment of intestine blocked. Can lead to gangrene or perforation.
gangrene tissue death that is associated w/ loss of normal circulation
perforation describes hole through wall of a structure
volvulus twisting of intestine on itself, causing an obstruction. Can cause necrosis of affected segment of bowel.
volvulus is Latin word that means rolled up or twisted
intussusception telescoping of one part of the SM intestine into opening of an immediately adjacent part, rare but serious condition found in children btw 3mo-6yr
intussuscept to take up or to receive within
inguinal hernia protrusion of small loop of bowel through a weak place in lower abdominal wall or groin. Caused by obesity, preganancy, heavy lifing, or straining to pass stool
strangulated hernia occurs when portion of intestine is constricted inside hernia, causing ischemia in this tissue by cutting off blood supply
ischemia insufficient oxygen
infections diseases of intestines - how transmitted, most common through contaminated food/ water or poor sanitation process. Clostridium difficile, dysentery, E. coli, Salmonellosis
Clostridium difficile C. diff; bacterial infection common to older adults in hospitals or long-term-care facilities, typically following use of antibiotics that wipe out competing bacteria. Causes diarrhea & inflammation of colon.
Infection control measures for C. diff hand-scrubbing or wearing gloves can help prevent spread
dysentery bacterial infection that occurs most frequently in tropical countries where spread through food/ water contaminated by human feces
E. coli caused by bacterium Escherichia coli, transmitted through contaminated foods that have not been adequately cooked
salmonellosis aka salmonella; transmitted by feces through direct contact w/ animals or by eating contaminated raw or under-cooked meats, eggs, or unpasteurized milk/ cheese products.
anal fissure small crack-like sore in skin of anus that can cause severe pain during bowel movement
fissure groove or crack-like sore of skin
bowel incontinence inability to control the excretion of feces
constipation having a bowel movement fewer than 3x wk. Stools dry, hard, small, difficult to eliminate.
constipation caused by lack of fiber in diet, disease, side effect of a certain drug, & pelvic floor dysfunction (women)
pelvic floor disfunction lack of coordination of the muscles needed for the rectum to straighten & the anal sphincter to relax
diarrhea abnormally frequent flow of loose or watery stools & can lead to dehydration
hemorrhoids occur when cluster of veins, muscles, & tissues slip near or through the anal opening. Can become inflamed, painful, fecal leakage, itching, bleeding.
rectocele bulging of front wall of rectum into vagina, usually as result of childbirth or pregnancy
-cele hernia
hematochezia presence of bright red blood in stool. Usually indicates blood coming from lower part of GI tract
melena passage of black, tarry, foul-smelling stools - due to presence of digested blood & often indicates bleeding in upper part of GI
steatorrhea presence of excess fat in stool which results in frothy, foul-smelling stools, usually caused by pancreatic disease, removal of gallbladder, or malabsorption disorders
liver disorders are a major concern b/c functioning of liver is essential to digestive process
ascites abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in peritoneal cavity. Usually result of severe liver disease creating pressure on liver's blood vessels.
serous substance having watery consistency
hepatomegaly abnormal enlargement of liver
steat/o fat
jaundice yellow discoloration of skin, mucous membranes, & eyes. Caused by greater-than-normal amts of bilirubin in blood
hepatitis inflammation of liver usually caused by viral infection.
viral hepatitis leading cause of liver cancer & most common reason for liver transplant
3 most common varieties of viral hepatitis HAV Hepatitis A Virus, HBC Hepatitis B Virus, & HCV Hepatitis C Virus
Hepatitis A Virus most prevalent type, highly contagious transmitted mainly through contamination of food/ water w/ infected fecal matter.
Hepatitis B Virus bloodborne disease transmitted through contact w/ blood & other body fluids that are contaminated w/ virus.
Hepatitis C Virus bloodborne disease spread through contact w/ blood & other body fluids that are contaminated w/ virus. Silent epidemic.
Which form of hepatitis virus is silent epidemic & why Hep C b/c it can be present in body for years & destroy the liver before any symptoms appear
Which forms of hepatitis can you get a vaccine for immunity? HAV & HBV, but not HCV
clinical conditions associated w/ cirrhosis of the liver mental confusion, spider angiomas, esophageal varices, scarred liver tissue, abdominal ascites, testicular atrophy, edema, gynecomastia, splenomegaly, erythema of palms, skin hemorrhages
cholecystisis inflammation of the gallbladder, usually assoc. w/ gallstones blocking flow of bile
gallstone aka cholelith; hard deposit formed in gallbladder & bile ducts due to concretion of bile components
cholelithiasis presence of gallstones in gallbladder or bile ducts
-lithiasis presence of stones
biliary colic pain caused by passage of gallstone through bile duct
abdominal computed tomography CT; radiographic procedure that produces a detailed cross-section of the tissue structure w/in abdomen looking for tumor or obstruction (ex)
abdominal ultrasound noninvasive test used to visualize internal organs by using very high-frequency sound waves.
cholangiography radiographic exam of bile ducts w/ use of contrast medium. Identify obstructions in liver or bile ducts that slow or block flow of bile from liver
cholangiogram resulting record from a cholangiography
cholangi/o bile duct
enema placement of solution into rectum & colon to empty lower intestine through bowel activity. Sometimes prep for endoscopic exam, also used to treat severe constipation to inject meds
esophagogastroduodenoscopy endoscopic procedure that allows direct visualization of upper GI tract & includes esophagus, stomach, & upper duodenum
upper GI series radiographic study to examine upper digestive system. Barium swallowed to make structures visible
lower GI series radiographic study to examine lower digestive system. Barium inserted via rectum to make structures visible
barium contrast medium to make structures visible during upper/ lower GI exams
stool samples specimens of feces that are examined for content & characteristics.
fatty stool sample might indicate presence of pancreatic disease
O&P ova (parasite eggs) and parasites - cultures of stool samples can be examined for presence of this or bacteria in lab.
endoscope instrument used for endoscopy
endoscopy visual examination of internal structures
anoscopy visual examination of anal canal & lower rectum
capsule endoscopy use of tiny video camera in capsule that patient swallows. Takes photos for 8 hr trip through sm intestine & transmits images
where is data collector of capsule endoscopy? sensor devices detecting images are attached to patient's abdomen & are transmitted to data recorder on patient's belt
diagnostic tests for the early detection of polyps that may be cancerous colonoscopy, virtual colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, Hemoccult test, Cologuard.
colonoscopy COL; direct visual exam of inner surface of the entire colon from rectum to cecum using colonoscope
virtual colonoscopy small, flexible tube inserted into rectum & MRI or CT machine is used to produce 2 & 3 dim images of colon.
sigmoidoscopy endoscopic exam of interior of the rectum, sigmoid colon, & possibly portion of descending colon
Hemoccult test aka fecal occult blood test; lab test for hidden blood in stool. Kit to obtain samples & home & shipped to lab for evaluation
Cologuard recently developed, noninvasive, collect-at-home stool test that uses DNA testing w/ screening for hidden blood to determine potential for colorectal cancer
Hemoccult & Cologuard are capitalized because Brand names
antioxidants chemicals such as vitamins A, C, E; carotene: and lutein that may prevent or delay cell damage by blocking activity of potentially harmful chemicals called free radicals
What foods typically have antioxidants? fruits, beans, berries, nuts, & dark chocolate
probiotics living microorganisms sometimes described as "good" bacteria b/c of their role in aiding digestion & protecting body from harmful bacteria
pro- supporting
prebiotics nondigestible carbs that probiotics feed on.
What foods typically contain prebiotics & probiotics? yogurt, some dairy drinks, & supplements
antacids neutralize acids in stomach & are taken to relieve discomfort of conditions such as pyrosis or to help peptic ulcers heal
proton pump inhibitors decrease amt of acid produced by stomach. Meds used to treat symptoms of GERD.
antiemetic medication administered to prevent or relieve nausea & vomiting
anti- against
emet vomit
laxatives meds or foods given to stimulate bowel movements
bulk-forming laxatives ex bran, treat constipation by helping fecal matter retain water & remain soft as it moves through intestines
antimotility drugs OTC meds used to treat diarrhea
antacids OTC meds used to treat upset stomach
intravenous fluids IV; administered to combat effects of dehydration
oral rehydration therapy ORT; treatment in which solution of electrolytes is administered in a liquid preparation to counteract dehydration that can accompany diarrhea, especially young kids
dental prophylaxis professional cleaning of teeth to remove plaque & calculus
prophylaxis treatment to prevent a disease or stop it from spreading
dental implant anchoring of a crown, bridge, or denture to the bone of the jaw.
crown metal or porcelain alloy cap shaped like a damaged tooth cemented over the remaining tooth structure
bridge fixed dental prosthesis used to join one or more artificial teeth to adjacent teeth
denture plate holding 1 or more replacement teeth
conventional dentures aka full or partial set of false teeth, are removable
root canal refers to both pulp cavity in root of tooth & a procedure in which diseased or damaged pulp in root canal is removed to save tooth
after root canal is free from infection, the cavity is filled w/ protective substance & sealed
gingivectomy surgical removal of diseased gingival tissue
maxillofacial surgery specialized surgery of the face & jaws to correct deformities, treat diseases, & repair injuries
palatoplasty surgical repair of a cleft palate, also used to refer to repair of cleft lip
gastrectomy surgical removal of all or part of the stomach
nasogastric intubation NG tube; placement of a feeding tube through nose & into stomach. Temporarily provides nutrition for patients that cannot take nutrients by mouth.
gastrostomy tube aka G-tube. surgically placed feeding tube from exterior of body directly into stomach. Permanently placed to provide nutrients
total parenteral nutrition administered to patients who cannot or should not get their nutrition through eating. All through specialized solution administered intravenously.
parenteral not in or through digestive system
bariatric surgery performed to treat morbid obesity by restricting amt of food that can enter the stomach & be digested. Limit food intake.
gastric bypass surgery aka Roux-en-Y gastric bypass; makes stomach smaller by stapling section to create small pouch & causes food to bypass the 1st part of small intestine
lap-band adjustable gastric banding LAGB; involves placing inflatable band around exterior of stomach to restrict amt of food that can enter. Reversible.
endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty 1 of several endoscopic options for bariatric surgeries requiring general anesthesia. Stomach sutured to make into small tube, reducing capacity significantly
colectomy surgical removal of all or part of colon
colotomy surgical incision into colon
diverticulectomy surgical removal or diverticulum
gastroduodenostomy establishment of an anastomosis btw upper portion of stomach & duodenum. Performed to treat stomach cancer or remove malfunctioning pyloric valve
anastomosis surgical connection btw 2 hollow, or tubular, structures
ileectomy surgical removal of the ileum
ostomy aka stoma; surgical procedure to create an artificial opening btw an organ & body surface
ileostomy surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening btw the ileum, @ end of sm intestine, & the outside of the abdominal wall
ile small intestine
colostomy surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening btw colon & body surface. Fecal matter flows into bag
hemorrhoidectomy surgical removal of hemorrhoids
rubber band ligation used instead of surgery for hemorrhoids where rubber bands cut off circulation @ base of hemorrhoid causing it to fall off
ligation tying off of blood vessels or ducts
proctopexy surgical fixation of a prolapsed rectum to an adjacent tissue or organ.
-pexy surgical fixation
prolapse falling or dropping down of an organ or internal part
hepatectomy surgical removal of all or part of the liver
liver transplant option for a patient whose liver has failed for a reason other than liver cancer. Liver tissue regenerates
partial liver transplant Since liver tissue regenerates, sometimes only portion of organ donated & can be from living donor match
choledocholithotomy incision into common bile duct for removal of gallstone
cholecystectomy surgical removal of the gallbladder
open cholecystectomy gallbladder removal performed through incision in RT side of upper abdomen
laparoscopic cholecystectomy aka lap choley; surgical removal of gallbladder using laparoscope & other instruments through 3 or 4 small incisions in abdomen
BMI body mass index
COL colonoscopy
EGD esophagogastroduodenoscopy
GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease
GI gastrointestinal
IH inguinal hernia
IBD inflammatory bowel disease
IBS irritable bowel syndrome
NG tube nasogastric tube
PUD peptic ulcer disease
TPN total parenteral nutrition
UC ulcerative colitis
Created by: kld0519
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